Important World Mapping: Part 5

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Relevance: World Geography- geographical features and their location. 


Orogenic Movements


  • An orogeny is an event that leads to both structural deformation and compositional differentiation of the Earth's lithosphere(crust and uppermost mantle) at convergent plate margins.
  • An orogen or orogenic belt develops when a continental plate crumples and is pushed upwards to form one or more mountain ranges; this involves a series of geological processes collectively called orogenesis.
  • The formation of an orogen can be accomplished by the tectonic processes such as oceanic subduction (where a continent rides forcefully over an oceanic plate for accretionary orogeny) or continental subduction convergence of two or more continents for collisional orogeny).
  • Since the dawn of geological time, no less than 9 orogenic or mountain building movements have taken place, folding and fracturing the earth's crust.
  • Some of them occurred in Pre-Cambrian times between 600-3500 million years ago. The three more recent orogenies are the Caledonian, Hercynian, and Alpine
  • The Caledonian about 320 million years ago raises the mountains of Scandinavian countries, Scotland and in North America. 
  • These ancient mountains have been worn down and no longer exhibit the striking forms that they must once have had. 
  • In a later period, during the Hercynian earth movements about 240 million years ago, were formed ranges such as the Ural Mountains, the Pennines and Welsh highlands in Britain, the Harz Mountains in Germany, the Appalachians in America as well as the high plateaux of Siberia and China
  • The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea.
  • These mountains have also been reduced in size by the various sculpturing forces.
  • We are now living in an era very close to the last, one of the major orogenic movements of the earth, the Alpine, about 30 million years ago. 
  • Young fold mountain ranges were buckled up overthrust on a gigantic scale.
  • Being the most recently formed these ranges, such as the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, and the Rockies are the loftiest and the most imposing.
  • Their peaks are sometimes several miles high. But the time will come when these lofty ranges will be lowered like those that existed before them.
  • From the eroded materials, new rocks will be formed, later to be uplifted to form the next generation of mountains. 


Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically south of China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north-west of Australia.

The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:

  1. Mainland Southeast Asia, also known historically as Indochina, comprising Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.
  2. Maritime Southeast Asia, also known historically as Nusantara, the East Indies, or the Malay Archipelago, comprising the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India), Ashmore and Cartier Islands (Australia), Brunei, Christmas Island (Australia), the Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia), East Malaysia, East Timor, Indonesia (except Western New Guinea, which is considered a part of the Australian continent), the Philippines and Singapore.

Mainland Southeast Asia Countries and their Capitals

Myanmar Naypyidaw
Thailand Bangkok
Laos Vientiane
Cambodia Phnom Penh
Vietnam Hanoi
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur


If we arrange these capitals of mainland South-East Asia from North to South, the correct order would be:

Hanoi-Naypyidaw-Vientiane-Bangkok-Phnom Penh-Kuala Lumpur


Himadri- India's Arctic Research Centre


Himadri is India's first permanent Arctic research station located at Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway.

  • It is located at the International Arctic Research base, Ny-Ålesund.
  • It was set up during India's second Arctic expedition in June 2008.
  • It is located at a distance of 1,200 kilometers (750 mi) from the North Pole.

Research Goals

  • Himadri's functions include long term monitoring of the fjord (Kongsfjorden) dynamics, and atmospheric research. The primary goals of India's research include research on aerosol radiation, space weather, food-web dynamics, microbial communities, glaciers, sedimentology, and carbon recycling.
  • The research base has devoted time to the research of governance and policy of the Arctic.
  • India has prioritized research and study in the fields of genetics, glaciology, geology, pollution in the atmosphere, and space weather among other fields.

Strategic Interests

  • The United States Geological Survey estimates that 22% of the world's oil and natural gas could be located beneath the Arctic.
  • India's ONGC Videsh is reported to be interested in joint-venture with Russia for oil exploration and has reportedly requested Rosneft for a stake in a project.
  • In addition, using Arctic sea lanes for shipping would reduce voyage times by 40% compared to Indian, Pacific or Atlantic Ocean routes. On 15 May 2013, India was made a permanent observer at the Arctic Council.
  • India is the 11th country after Britain, Germany, France, Italy, China, Japan, South Korea, The Netherlands, Sweden, and Norway to set up a permanent research station in Ny-Ålesund.



Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean. 

  • The countries that have shorelines along the Baltic Sea: Denmark, Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Sweden.
  • Norway doesn't have a shoreline along the Baltic Sea.
  • The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations, or simply the Baltics, is a geopolitical term, typically used to group the three sovereign states in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.


What is a mediterranean sea?

A mediterranean sea is, in oceanography, a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of water with outer oceans and with water circulation dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds.

The eponymous Mediterranean Sea, for example, is almost completely enclosed by Europe, Asia, and Africa.

List of mediterranean seas

The mediterranean seas of the Atlantic Ocean:

  • The namesake Mediterranean Seas, including the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, the Aegean Sea (including the Thracian Sea and the Sea of Crete), the Adriatic Sea, the Alboran Sea, the Ligurian Sea, the Balearic Sea, the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Ionian Sea, and the Sea of Marmara.
  • The Arctic Ocean (or Arctic Mediterranean Sea, which many regard as an ocean)
  • The American Mediterranean Sea: the combination of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.
  • The Baltic Sea
  • Baffin Bay

The mediterranean seas of the Indian Ocean

  • The Persian Gulf
  • The Red Sea
  • The Australasian Mediterranean Sea (including the Banda, Sulu, Sulawesi and Java Seas)


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