Important World Mapping: Part 6

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Relevance: World Geography- geographical features and their location. 


Red Sea


The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Arabia.

  • The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden.
  • To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez (leading to the Suez Canal).
  • The Red Sea is a Global 200 ecoregion.
  • The sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley.
  • The countries that border Red Sea are:
    • Egypt to the west and north, and
    • Sudan, Djibouti, and Eritrea to the west.
    • Yemen and Saudi Arabia in the East.


Countries which lie on the equator


The equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is the parallel (circle of latitude) at which latitude is defined to be 0°.

  • It is the imaginary line on the spheroid, equidistant from its poles, dividing it into northern and southern hemispheres.
  • In other words, it is the intersection of the spheroid with the plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation and midway between its geographical poles.
  • The equator passes through 13 countries: Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Sao Tome & Principe, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Maldives, Indonesia, and Kiribati.
  • On Earth, the equator is about 40,075 km (24,901 mi) long, of which 78.8% lies across water and 21.3% over land. 
  • Indonesia is the country straddling the greatest length of the equatorial line across both land and sea.


Davis Strait


The Davis Strait is a northern arm of the Labrador Sea.

  •  It lies between mid-western Greenland and Nunavut, Canada's Baffin Island.
  • To the north is the Baffin Bay.
  • The strait was named for the English explorer John Davis, who explored the area while seeking a Northwest Passage. 
  • The Strait connects the Labrador Sea (Atlantic Ocean) in the south with the Baffin Bay to the north. 


Strait of Gibraltar

The Strait of Gibraltar, also known as the Straits of Gibraltar, is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa.

  • The two continents are separated by 14.3 kilometers of the ocean at the Strait's narrowest point.
  • On the northern side of the Strait are Spain and Gibraltar (a British overseas territory in the Iberian Peninsula), while on the southern side are Morocco and Ceuta (a Spanish autonomous city in northern Africa).
  • Due to its location, the Strait is commonly used for illegal immigration from Africa to Europe.
  • The Strait is an important shipping route from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. 




Dover Strait


The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows, is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel, marking the boundary between the Channel and the North Sea, separating Great Britain from continental Europe.

  • The entire strait is within the territorial waters of France and the United Kingdom, but a right of transit passage under the UNCLOS exists allowing unrestricted shipping.
  • Most maritime traffic between the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea and Baltic Sea passes through the Strait of Dover, rather than taking the longer and more dangerous route around the north of Scotland.
  • The strait is the busiest international seaway in the world, used by over 400 commercial vessels daily.
  • The Strait of Dover was the scene of several historic naval battles, notably the first major repulse by the English of the Spanish Armada (1588). 






The Bering Strait is a strait of the Pacific, which separates Russia and the United States slightly south of the Arctic Circle at about 65° 40' N latitude

  • The Strait has been the subject of the scientific hypothesis that humans migrated from Asia to North America across a land bridge known as Beringia when lower ocean levels– perhaps a result of glaciers locking up vast amounts of water– exposed a wide stretch of the seafloor, both at the present strait and in the shallow sea north and south of it. 
  • The Bering Strait is about 82 kilometers wide at its narrowest point, between Cape Dezhnev, Chungu Peninsula, Russia, the easternmost point (169° 39' W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, United States, the westernmost point (168° 05' W) of the North American continent.
  • It borders the Chukchi Sea (part of the Arctic Ocean) to the north and the Bering Sea to the south.
  • The International Date Line runs equidistant between the Strait's Diomede Islands at a distance of 1.5 km (1 mi), leaving the Russian and American sides usually on different calendar days, with Cape Dezhnev 21 hours ahead of the American side (20 hours during daylight saving time).
  • Since 2012, the Russian coast of the Bering Strait has been a closed military zone.




Central Asia


Central Asia is a region which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north.

  • The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.
  • It is also colloquially referred to as “the stans” as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix “-stan”, meaning “land of”.
  • Depending on different interpretations, the neighbouring areas are sometimes also considered part of the region.
  • Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road.
  • It has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, and East Asia.
  • The Silk Road connected Muslim lands with the people of Europe, India, and China.
  • This crossroads position has intensified the conflict between tribalism and traditionalism and modernization.
  • The age of the Timurid Renaissance began from today's Uzbekistan.
  • Central Asia is an extremely large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains (Tian Shan), vast deserts (Kyzyl Kum, Taklamakan), and especially treeless, grassy steppes.
  • The vast steppe areas of Central Asia are considered together with the steppes of Eastern Europe as a homogeneous geographical zone known as the Eurasian Steppe.
  • Major rivers of the region include the Amu Darya, the Syr Darya, Irtysh, the Hari River, and the Murghab River.
  • Major bodies of water include the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash, both of which are part of the huge west-central Asian endorheic basin that also includes the Caspian Sea.
  • Both of these bodies of water have shrunk significantly in recent decades due to the diversion of water from rivers that feed them for irrigation and industrial purposes.
  • Water is an extremely valuable resource in arid Central Asia and can lead to rather significant international disputes.


Countries Capital
Kazakhstan Astana
Uzbekistan Tashkent
Turkmenistan Ashgabat
Tajikistan Dushanbe
Kyrgyzstan Bishkek

Capital cities of Central Asia from West to East: Ashgabat-Tashkent-Dushanbe-Bishkek.


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