Please Share with maximum friends to support the Initiative.
Prelims: Prelims: Current events of national and international importance.
Mains: GS III-
- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
|Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change:
- It is the nodal agency in the central government for overseeing the implementation of India’s environment and forest policies, programmes and related schemes.
- The Ministry is also the nodal agency for the:
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP);
- International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD); and
- United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).
- The Ministry also coordinates with multilateral bodies such as the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), Global Environment Facility (GEF) and regional bodies such as Economic and Social Council for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP) and South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) on matters pertaining to environment.
|Various Initiatives and scheme of Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change:
Environment Related Institutions and Organizations:
- Botanical Survey of India
- Red Data Book
- ENVIS (Environmental Information System)
- Forest Survey of India
- Wildlife Institute of India
- National Green Tribunal
Various Initiatives And Schemes:
- National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)
- India’s efforts to beat plastic pollution
- India Hosts COP14, Will Restore 26 Million Hectares of Degraded Land by 2030
- Bharat Standard IV to Bharat Standard VI Norms
- Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan
- Forest & Wildlife:
- Asiatic Lion Conservation Project
- Fourth cycle of All India Tiger Estimation – 2018
- Biennial “India State of Forest Report (ISFR)
- Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority
- First National Protocol on Snow Leopard Population Assessment in India
- Climate Change:
- Climate Action Summit
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) / COP25
- BASIC Counties on Climate Change
|Environment Related Institutions and Organizations:
|Botanical Survey of India:
- Botanical Survey of India (BSI) is the apex research organization under MoEF&CC, for carrying out taxonomic and floristic studies on wild plant resources.
- It was established in 1890.
- Functional base of BSI was further expanded to include various new areas such as inventorying of endemic, rare and threatened plant species; evolving conservation strategies; studies on ecosystems and protected areas etc.
- Internationally IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) prepares a Red Data List/ Red Data Book which categories species and plants according to the degree of threat/extinction.
- Zoological Survey of India
- Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), a premier research institution under the Ministry.
- It has completed 100 years of service.
- Headquarters at Kolkata and 16 Regional centres are located at different parts of the country.
|ENVIS (Environmental Information System):
- Environmental Information System (ENVIS) was set up in 1983 as a plan programme as a comprehensive network in environmental information collection, collation, storage, retrieval and dissemination to varying users, which include decision-makers, researchers, academicians, policy planners and research scientists, etc.
- The focus of ENVIS since inception has been on providing environmental information to decision-makers, policy planners, scientists and engineers, research workers, etc. all over the country.
- A large number of nodes, known as ENVIS Centres, have been established in the network to cover the broad subject areas of environment with a Focal Point in the Ministry of Environment & Forests.
- Forest Survey of India (FSI), a national level organization under the Ministry is engaged in the assessment of the country’s forest resources on a regular interval.
- Established in 1981, the Forest Survey of India succeeded the “Pre-investment Survey of Forest Resources” (PISFR), a project initiated in 1965 by Government of India with the sponsorship of FAO and UNDP
- Forest Survey of India is involved in the following:
- Forest Cover Mapping
- FSI is involved in forest cover assessment of the country on a biennial basis and publishes ‘India State of Forest Report’.
- Forest and Tree Cover of the country has increased by 8,021 sq km (1%) as compared to the assessment of 2015. The very dense forest has increased by 1.36% as compared to the last assessment.
|Wildlife Institute of India:
- It was established in 1986 in Dehradun as an autonomous institute of the Ministry.
- Its primary mandates are to:
- Carry out scientific and applied research on various issues of wildlife and biodiversity
- Develop wildlife and biodiversity conservation,
- Develop wildlife science as a discipline through academic activities,
- Build capacity in the field of wildlife management and conservation planning, and
- Provide technical inputs to MoEFCC and other international organizations.
- It was set up in 2010 under the NGT Act, 2010. It is a statutory body.
- The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice.
- The Tribunal is mandated to make an endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6months of filing.
- NGT has five places of sitting, i.e. the Principal Bench in Delhi and Zonal Benches in Pune, Kolkata, Bhopal and Chennai. Apart from this, the Tribunal holds three circuit Benches at Shimla, Shillong and Jodhpur.
|National Clean Air Programme (NCAP):
- A time-bound national-level strategy for pan India implementation to tackle the increasing air pollution problem across the country in a comprehensive manner in the form of National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) was launched on 10th January, 2019.
- National Clean Air Programme (NCAP):
- This is the first-ever effort in the country to frame a national framework for air quality management with a time-bound reduction target.
- The programme will not be notified under the Environment Protection Act or any other Act to create a firm mandate with a strong legal back up for cities and regions to implement NCAP in a time-bound manner for effective reduction.
- Key features of the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP):
- Achieve a national-level target of 20-30% reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration by between 2017 and 2024.
- Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) will execute this nation-wide programme in consonance with section 162 (b) of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1986.
- The programme has been launched with an initial budget of ₹300 crore for the first two years.
- The plan includes 102 non-attainment cities, across 23 states and Union territories, which were identified by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) on the basis of their ambient air quality data between 2011 and 2015.
- Non-attainment cities are those which have been consistently showing poorer air quality than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. These include Delhi, Varanasi, Bhopal, Kolkata, Noida, Muzaffarpur, and Mumbai.
- As part of the programme, the Centre also plans to scale up the air quality monitoring network across India. At least 4,000 monitors are needed across the country, instead of the existing 101 real-time air quality (AQ) monitors, according to an analysis.
- The plan proposes a three-tier system, including real-time physical data collection, data archiving, and an action trigger system in all 102 cities, besides extensive plantation plans, research on clean-technologies, landscaping of major arterial roads, and stringent industrial standards.
|India’s efforts to beat plastic pollution:
- In a significant first, India piloted resolutions on two important global environmental issues relating to Single-use Plastics and Sustainable Nitrogen management at the fourth session of United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) which was held in Nairobi from 11th to 15th March 2019.
- UNEA adopted both the resolutions with consensus.
- India has piloted resolutions on two key global environmental issues, single-use plastics and sustainable nitrogen management, at the fourth session of the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA).
- The UN Environment adopted both the resolutions with consensus.
- So far, 22 States and Union Territories have joined the fight to beat the plastic pollution, announcing a ban on single-use plastics such as carry bags, cups, plates, cutlery, straws and thermocol products.
- Puducherry is implementing a ban from March 1.
- India has also won global acclaim for its “Beat Plastic Pollution” resolve declared on World Environment Day last year, under which it pledged to eliminate single-use plastic by 2022.
- All such efforts have yielded positive results:
- Voluntary initiatives are having an impact in many States, as citizens reduce, reuse and sort their waste.
- A Bengaluru waste collective estimates that the volume of plastic waste that they collect dropped from about two tonnes a day to less than 100 kg.
|About UN Environment Assembly:
- The United Nations Environment Assembly is the world’s highest-level decision-making body on the environment. It addresses the critical environmental challenges facing the world today.
- The Environment Assembly meets biennially to set priorities for global environmental policies and develop international environmental law.
- The Assembly is the governing body of the UN Environment Programme (UN Environment) and the successor of its Governing Council, which was composed of 58 member States.
- The UN Environment Assembly, with universal membership, is now composed of 193 Member States.
- India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) Launched in March this year.
- India is one of the first countries in the world to develop a comprehensive Cooling Action plan which has a long term vision to address the cooling requirement across sectors and lists out actions which can help reduce the cooling demand.
- Cooling requirement is cross-sectoral and an essential part for economic growth and is required across different sectors of the economy such as residential and commercial buildings, cold-chain, refrigeration, transport and industries.
|India Hosts COP14, Will Restore 26 Million Hectares of Degraded Land by 2030:
- India hosted the 14th Conference of Parties (COP14) to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) from 2-13 September 2019 at Greater Noida.
- During the Conference, the Prime Minister announced “India would raise its ambition of the total area that would be restored from its land degradation status, from twenty-one million hectares to twenty-six million hectares between now and 2030”.
- Held in Greater Noida, this was the first time that India hosted an edition of the UNCCD COP.
- The theme of the Conference was ‘Restore land, Sustain future’.
- India is the global host for COP 14 has taken over the COP Presidency from China for the next two years till 2021.
- India is among the select few countries to have hosted the COP of all three Rio conventions on climate change, biodiversity and land.
- Key Takeaways:
- Delhi Declaration:
- Commitment for a range of issues, including gender and health, ecosystem restoration, taking action on climate change, private sector engagement, Peace Forest Initiative and recovery of five million hectares of degraded land in India.
- The country parties have agreed to make the Sustainable Development Goal target of achieving land degradation neutrality by 2030, a national target for action.
- Peace Forest Initiative:
- It is an initiative of South Korea to use ecological restoration as a peace-building process.
- It aims at addressing the issue of land degradation in conflict-torn border areas and would go a long way in alleviating tensions and building trust between communities living there and between enemy countries in particular.
- Drought Toolbox:
- It is launched as a one-stop-shop for all actions on drought.
- It is a sort of knowledge bank which contains tools that strengthen the ability of countries to anticipate and prepare for drought effectively and mitigate their impacts as well as tools that enable communities to anticipate and find the land management tools that help them to build resilience to drought.
- International coalition for action on Sand and Dust storms (SDS):
- The coalition will develop an SDS source base map with the goal of improving monitoring and response to these storms.
- SDS affects approximately 77% of UNCCD country Parties or approximately 151 countries.
- Initiative of Sustainability, Stability and Security (3S):
- Launched by 14 African countries to address migration driven by land degradation. It aims at restoring land and creating green jobs for migrants and vulnerable groups.
- Cooperation From Youth:
- The global Youth Caucus on Desertification and Land convened its first official gathering in conjunction with the UNCCD COP14 to bring together youth advocates from different parts of the world, to build their capacity, share knowledge, build networks and to engage them meaningfully in the UNCCD processes.
|UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD):
- Established in 1994.
- It is the sole legally binding international agreement linking environment and development to sustainable land management.
- It is the only convention stemming from a direct recommendation of the Rio Conference’s Agenda 21.
- To help publicise the Convention, 2006 was declared “International Year of Deserts and Desertification”.
- Focus areas: The Convention addresses specifically the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, known as the drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems and peoples can be found.
- Aim: Its 197 Parties aim, through partnerships, to implement the Convention and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. The end goal is to protect land from over-use and drought, so it can continue to provide food, water and energy.
- The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change is the nodal Ministry for this Convention.
|Bharat Standard IV to Bharat Standard VI Norms:
- The country has leapfrogged from Bharat Standard IV to Bharat Standard VI for vehicle emission norms and from 1st April 2020, vehicles will be BS-VI compliant.
- There is also a strong push for use of e-vehicles by introducing multiple policy interventions and incentives.
- To curb growing menace of air pollution through the vehicles' emission, the Government of India has decided to leapfrog from the exiting BS-IV norms to the BS-VI, thereby skipping the BS – V norms, and to implement the BS-VI norms with effect from 1st April 2020.
- Only those vehicles will be sold and registered in India from 1st April 2020 onwards, which comply with these norms.
- The norms are stringent and at par with global standards.
Difference between BS-IV and the new BS-VI:
- The major difference in standards between the existing BS-IV and the new BS-VI auto fuel norms is the presence of sulphur.
- The newly introduced fuel is estimated to reduce the amount of sulphur released by 80%, from 50 parts per million to 10 ppm.
- As per the analysts, the emission of NOx (nitrogen oxides) from diesel cars is also expected to reduce by nearly 70% and 25% from cars with petrol engines.
- The Environment Ministry is undertaking a mass cleanliness-cum-awareness drive in 50 identified beaches under the “Swachh – Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan”.
- About :
- Launched by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC)
- To make beaches clean and create awareness amongst citizens about the importance of coastal ecosystems – in Beaches across 10 states / UTs.
- The campaign will be organized on the beaches after consultation with the state governments.
- Environment Education Division and Society of Integrated Coastal Management (SICOM) under the Environment Ministry will be responsible for its implementation.
- At the end of the drive, the best three beaches will be suitably awarded along with a certificate of appreciation for all the participating eco-clubs.
- The implementation of the drive will be monitored by the MoEF&CC office.
|Asiatic Lion Conservation Project:
- A dedicated “Asiatic Lion Conservation Project” has been launched by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change(MoEFCC).
- MoEFCC has approved the project for three financial years from 2018 to 2021.
- The Asiatic Lion, endemic to Gir landscape of Gujarat is one of the 21 critically endangered species identified by the Ministry for taking up recovery programmes.
- The project envisages scientific management with the involvement of communities in coordination with multi-sectoral agencies for disease control and veterinary care for overall conservation of Asiatic lion.
- This project has “Species Conservation over a large landscape” approach.
- Large Landscape Conservation:
- Large landscape conservation is an approach to conservation and management that focuses on actions that are taken across large areas, such as entire watersheds. Large landscape conservation generally involves many forest divisions, government agencies, and conservation organizations.
- As Asiatic Lions are found only in the Gir Landscape, this project will focus on conservation efforts of Asiatic Lions over whole Gir Range.
|Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica):
- Asiatic lions are slightly smaller than African lions.
- Males have only moderate mane growth at the top of the head so that their ears are always visible.
- The most striking morphological character, which is always seen in Asiatic lions, and rarely in African lions, is a longitudinal fold of skin running along its belly.
- Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972: Schedule 1
- CITES Appendix I
- IUCN Red List: Endangered
- Asiatic lions were once distributed to the state of West Bengal in east and Rewa in Madhya Pradesh, in central India.
- At present Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is the only abode of the Asiatic lion.
|Fourth cycle of All India Tiger Estimation – 2018:
- According to results of the Tiger census, the total count of tigers has risen to 2,967 from 2,226 in 2014 — an increase of 741 individuals (aged more than one year), or 33%, in four years.
- India has achieved the target of doubling the tiger count four years ahead of the deadline of 2022.
- This is by far the biggest increase in Tiger count in terms of both numbers and percentage (since the four-yearly census using camera traps and the capture-mark-recapture method began in 2006).
- Tigers in India:
- India accounts for majority of the 3,500-odd tigers that are scattered among Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russian Federation, Thailand and Vietnam.
- India’s five tiger landscapes are:
- Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains, Central Indian Landscape and Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, North-East Hills and Brahmaputra Plains, and the Sundarbans.
|Biennial “India State of Forest Report (ISFR):
- ISFR is a biennial publication of Forest Survey of India (FSI), an organization under the Ministry of Environment Forest & Climate Change.
- The ISFR assesses the forest and tree cover, bamboo resources, carbon stock and forest fires.
- The 2019 report for the first time has assessed the qualitative nature of the forest cover, including listing its biodiversity and the type of plants and trees found.
- It also created a national forest inventory for the first time on produce from forests.
- Key Findings:
- Increase in Forest Cover:
- The country’s forest cover includes all patches of land with a tree canopy density of more than 10% and more than 1 hectare in area, irrespective of land use, ownership and species of trees.
- The total forest cover of the country is 7,12,249 sq km which is 21.67% of the geographical area of the country.
- The top five states to have shown an increase in forest cover include Karnataka (1,025 sq km) > Andhra Pradesh (990 sq km) > Kerala (823 sq km) > J&K (371 sq km) > Himachal Pradesh (334 sq km).
- Decline of Forest Cover in North Eastern Region:
- Total forest cover in the North-Eastern region is 1,70,541 sq km, which is 65.05% of its geographical area.
- There has been a decrease of forest cover to the extent of 765 sq km (0.45%) in the region. Except Assam and Tripura, all the States in the region show a decrease in forest cover.
- Forest Cover in Tribal Districts:
- The total forest cover in the tribal districts is 4,22,351 sq km, which is 37.54% of the geographical area of these districts.
|Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority:
- The Union Environment Ministry has transferred ₹47,436 crore to 27 States for afforestation. The funds are long-pending dues, part of the Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF), that has been collected for nearly a decade as environmental compensation from industry.
- The funds transferred are in addition to State Budget.
- The centre expects that states will utilize the funds towards forestry activities to achieve the objectives of the Nationally-Determined Contributions (NDCs) of increasing forest & tree cover.
- The Fund will be used as per provisions of the CAF Act and Rules.
- Compensatory Afforestation Fund:
- The CAF Act was passed by the centre in 2016 and the related rules were notified in 2018.
- The CAF Act was enacted to manage the funds collected for compensatory afforestation which till then was managed by ad hoc Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA).
- Compensatory afforestation means that every time forest land is diverted for non-forest purposes such as mining or industry, the user agency pays for planting forests over an equal area of non-forest land, or when such land is not available, twice the area of degraded forest land.
- As per the rules, 90% of the CAF money is to be given to the states while 10% is to be retained by the Centre.
- The funds can be used for treatment of catchment areas, assisted natural generation, forest management, wildlife protection and management, relocation of villages from protected areas, managing human-wildlife conflicts, training and awareness generation, supply of wood saving devices and allied activities.
|First National Protocol on Snow Leopard Population Assessment in India:
- The Government of India has launched the First National Protocol on Snow Leopard Population Assessment, to mark the occasion of International Snow Leopard Day (23rd October).
- The first National Snow Leopard Survey of the nation has been developed by scientific experts in association with the Snow Leopard States/UTs namely, Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh.
- The use of technology such as camera traps and scientific surveys will help to estimate the numbers.
- The occasion also marked the inaugural session of the 4th steering committee meeting of the Global Snow Leopard & Ecosystem Protection (GSLEP) Program.
- Global Snow Leopard & Ecosystem Protection (GSLEP) Program:
- The GSLEP is a high-level inter-governmental alliance of all the 12 snow leopard range countries.
- The snow leopard countries namely, India, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
- It majorly focuses on the need for awareness and understanding of the value of Snow Leopard for the ecosystem.
- The GSLEP Program (2019) is being organized by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change at New Delhi.
- Currently, the Steering Committee meeting of GSLEP chaired by Nepal and co-chaired by Kyrgyzstan.
- Snow Leopard:
- The snow leopard inhabits the higher Himalayan and trans-Himalayan landscape in the five states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh.
- This area contributes to about 5% of the global snow leopard range.
- Snow leopards are categorized as ‘Vulnerable’ by IUCN and in the Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.
- They are listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), revealing the need for the highest conservation status to the species, both globally and in India.
- The UN Secretary-General, Antonio Guterres, hosted the 2019 Climate Action Summit.
- The Summit was held to boost ambition and accelerate actions to implement the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change.
- It took place amidst one of the largest environmental protests ever and a heart-wrenching speech from Greta Thunberg.
- Key Takeaways:
- Renewable Energy:
- India will increase renewable energy capacity to beyond 175 GW (capacity as committed under the Paris Climate Agreement) by 2022.
- Water Conservation:
- Spend approximately $50 billion in the next few years on the Jal Jeevan Mission to conserve water, harvest rainwater and develop water resources.
- International Solar Alliance:
- Almost 80 countries have joined this India led initiative.
- Two International Initiatives:
- Leadership Group:
- India and Sweden together with other countries have announced a new ‘Leadership Group for Industry Transition’ that will drive transformation in hard-to-decarbonize and energy-intensive sectors.
- Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI):
- An international partnership that will support countries- developed and developing- to build climate and disaster-resilient infrastructure.
- The Coalition’s secretariat, based in Delhi, will facilitate knowledge exchange, provide technical support and support capacity building.
- The Government of India, the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) and partners have together worked on the CDRI initiative in response to the Prime Minister of India’s call for action to reduce damage to critical infrastructure at the Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in 2016.
|United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) / COP25 :
- The 25th edition of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or COP25 has begun from December 2 in Madrid (Spain).
- Originally, the Summit was scheduled to be held at Chile (South America) but violent mass movement across the country made Chile reluctant from hosting the event.
- The summit will also discuss the functioning of international emissions trading systems, compensation for poor countries to deal with rising sea levels and other consequences of climate change.
- It will consider the Annual Emissions Gap Report, produced by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and a series of reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
- Both the reports summarise that the goal of keeping average temperatures within 1.5°C from pre-industrial times is “on the brink of becoming impossible.'' As the overall emissions are still increasing worldwide.
- Key Outcomes:
- Countries failed to reach any significant agreement at the end of CoP25. Following are some of the outcomes of it:
- Publication of the Climate Action Pathways:
- It outlines the long-term vision for a 1.5-degree climate-resilient world and sets out actions needed to achieve that future.
- Announcement of renewed Climate Ambition Alliance:
- It now recognizes 73 countries committed to net zero emissions by 2050.
- Focus for mitigation:
- On the submission of enhanced NDCs, reaching new commitments to achieve Net Zero by 2050, and the implementation of measures to strengthen the protection of forests and oceans.
- Focus for adaptation:
- On strong actions to improve the management of water, resilience in infrastructure and the sustainability of cities.
- At COP25, India also called upon more countries to join the International Solar Alliance (ISA) to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to meet the growing energy requirement, even as it acknowledged the phenomenal progress made by the Alliance and the growing solar energy capabilities the world over.
- Article 6 under the Paris Agreement, Enhanced Transparency Framework (Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification), Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation related matters wherein India has been stressing on parity between mitigation and adaptation and technology development and transfer were also discussed.
|BASIC Counties on Climate Change:
- The BASIC countries recently held their 28th Ministerial meeting on Climate Change in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
- The BASIC group was formed as the result of an agreement signed by the four countries on November 28, 2009.
- They are a bloc of four large newly industrialized countries – Brazil, South Africa, India, and China.
- Significance of the grouping:
- The signatory nations have a broadly common position on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and raising the massive funds that are needed to fight climate change.
- The BASIC countries constituted one of the parties in the Copenhagen Accord reached with the US-led grouping; the Accord, was, however, not legally binding.
- The BASIC group wields considerable heft purely because of the size of the economies and populations of the member countries.
- Brazil, South Africa, India, and China put together has one-third of the world’s geographical area and nearly 40% of the world’s population, and when they unitedly speak in one voice this shows their determination.
- BASIC is one of several groups of nations working together to fight climate change and carry out negotiations within the UNFCCC.
Please Share with maximum friends to support the Initiative.