Samajho’s Telegram Compilation: Part 5

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Telegram Compilation: Part 5

This is a compilation of various Articles / Solutions to MCQs that we regularly post on our Telegram Channel.
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  • Context:
    • The One Nation, One Ration Card system will be rolled out in all states and Union Territories by 2021. About 20 states have come on board to implement the inter-state ration card portability.
    • This system will enable migrant workers and their family members to access PDS benefits from any Fair Price Shop in the country.
  • What is the present system?
    • Under the National Food Security Act, 2013, about 81 crore persons are entitled to buy subsidized foodgrain — rice at Rs 3/kg, wheat at Rs 2/kg, and coarse grains at Re 1/kg — from their designated Fair Price Shops (FPS) of the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS).
    • In the present system, a ration cardholder can buy food grains only from an FPS assigned to them in their locality.
  • Ration Card Portability
    • Ration card portability is aimed at providing intra-state as well as inter-state portability of ration cards. 
    • While a person can buy their share of foodgrains as per entitlement from wherever they are based, the rest of their family can purchase subsidized foodgrains from their ration dealer back home.
  • Which states have adopted portability?
    • So far, 17 states and UTs — Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu — will roll out the inter-state portability of ration cards.

World Economic Forum

  • It is a Swiss nonprofit foundation established in 1971, based in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Recognized by the Swiss authorities as the international institution for public-private cooperation, its mission is cited as, “committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other leaders of society to shape global, regional, and industry agendas”.
  • Major reports published by WEF:
    • Global Competitiveness Report
    • Global IT Report
    • Global Gender Gap Report
    • Global Risk Report
    • Global Travel and Tourism Report




  • Context:
    • Recently Government of Uttar Pradesh has released Gharials (Gavialis gangeticus) in the Ghaghara river for conservation and protection in natural habitat.
  • Natural Habitat: 
    • Freshwaters of the northern part of India.
    • Gharials, sometimes called gavials, are a type of Asian crocodilian distinguished by their long, thin snouts that resemble a pot (ghara in Hindi).
  • Significance: 
    • The population of Gharials is a good indicator of clean river water.
  • Types:
    • Gharials are a type of Crocodilians that also includes crocodiles, alligators, caimans, etc. India has three species of Crocodilians namely:
      • Gharial : (IUCN)- Critically Endangered.
      • Mugger crocodile: IUCN- Vulnerable
      • Saltwater crocodile: IUCN- Least Concern
    • In comparison to Crocodiles, Gharials are very shy and unharmful species.
  • Primary Habitat:
    • Chambal river
    • The Chambal originates at the Singar Chouri peak in the northern slopes of the Vindhya mountains (Indore, Madhya Pradesh).
    • It joins the Yamuna River in Etawah District of UP.
  • Tributaries:
    • Banas, Kali Sindh, Parbati.
    • The National Chambal Sanctuary is located along river Chambal on the tri-junction of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. It is known for critically endangered gharials, the red-crowned roof turtle, and the endangered Ganges river dolphin.
  • Secondary Habitat: 
    • Ghaghra and Gandak river, Girwa river (Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh), the Ramganga river in Jim Corbett National Park and the Sone river.
  • Status:
    • Gharials are critically endangered in the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Species.
    • Listed under Schedule I of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
    • Listed in Appendix I of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
  • Conservation Efforts:
    • Breeding Centres of Kukrail Gharial Rehabilitation Centre in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, National Chambal Sanctuary (Gharial Eco Park, Madhya Pradesh).
  • Threats:
    • Gharials prefer sandbanks as suitable habitats. Wild animals as well as humans often destroy their eggs.
    • Increased river pollution, dam construction, massive-scale fishing operations, and floods.
    • Illegal sand mining and poaching.


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