SPR 2020: Important Terms of Ancient and Medieval Period

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Common jargons of Ancient Period

Lohit Ayas Copper   Pradeshika Head of District Administration
Syam Ayas Iron   Nagarka City administration
Vanik Traders   Jesthaka Chief of a Guild
Gramini  Village Head   Prathamakulika Chief of artisans
Bhagadugha Tax collector   Uparika Governor of Bhukti
Sthapati  Chief Judge   Didishu Remarried woman
Takshan Carpenter   Amatya High official
Niska Unit of currency   Dvija Initiation into education
Satamana Unit of currency   Yukta Revenue officer in the Mauryan period.
Pana A term used for coin   Rajjukas Land measurement & fixing land revenue
Shresthi Guilds   Sabha Assembly of few select ones
Vihara Buddhist Monastery   Samiti Larger Assembly
Chaitya Sacred Enclosure   Dharamamahamatya Most important post created by Asoka.


Terms in the Later Vedic Period

Sabha Assembly of Brahmans and elders
Samiti Assembly of Commoners
Vidhata For war booty distribution
Gana Highest Advisory body
Kula/ Family
Grama (Village)
Vis (Clan)
Jana (People)
Rashtra (the Country) Rajan


Officials in the Later Vedic Period

Purohita Chief Priest, also sometimes referred to as Rashtragopa
Senani Supreme Commander of the army
Jivagribha  Police Officer
Vrajapati Officer-in-Charge of pasture land
Spasas/ Dutas Spies who also sometimes worked as messengers
Madhyamasi Mediator on disputes
Bhagadugha Revenue collector
Sangrahitri Treasurer
Mahishi Chief Queen
Suta Charioteer and court minstrel


Important officials in the Mauryan Empire

Sannidhata Chief treasury officer
Samaharta Chief tax collector
Vyavharika/Dharmastha Chief justice of the civil court
Pradeshta Chief justice of the criminal court
Prsdesika Chief revenue officer
Rajuka Revenue settlement officer
Yukta  Tax collector
Sthanika Head of local administration
Gopa Responsible for accounts
Nagaraka Incharge of the city administration
Akshapla Account general
Sitaadhyaksha Supervised Agriculture
Panyadhyaksha Superintendent of commerce
Samstha dhyaksha Superintendent of market
Potwadhyaksha Superintendent of weights and measures
Navaadhyaksha  Superintendent of ships
Sulkaadhyaksha Collector of tolls
Akaradhyaksha Superintendent of mines
Lohadhyaksha Superintendent of iron


Common jargons of the Medieval Period

Mamluk White slaves Ur Common village assembly (Chola period)
Muqaddam Village head Nagaram Assembly of merchants (Chola period)
Sondhar loans Sabha Assembly of Brahmins (Chola period)
Khots Village head Khutba A sermon made in Friday mosque
Sharia Muslim law Madad-i-Maash Tax-free grants of land
Waqf Grants to Muslim religious establishment Pargana Around Hundred villages.
Mir Bakshi Military department Sadr us sadur  Ecclesiastical affairs
Ummah Muslim believers Mir Saman Supply department
Qanungos Keeper of revenue records Zabt Revenue-based on land measurement
Shiqdar Headed Pargana Amils Revenue officer
Ibadat Khana House of worship (Fatehpur Sikri) Hundis Bills of Exchange
Diwan The function of finance (Akbar’s time) Dhimmis Non-Muslim people 
Wujuhat Taxes on cattle, grazing, orchards. Vimans Towers of temple
Shaikhzadas Indian Muslims nobility Din Religion
Peshwa Prime minister (Shivaji) Ganj A grain market 
Amatya Revenue minister (Shivaji) Gomashta Commercial agent
Sumant Foreign minister (Shivaji) Hun  A gold coin 
Dam Coin (1/4th of a rupee) Bargir  Cavalrymen (horse belonged to leader)
Sarkar A number of Paragana Nankar  A portion of revenue given to Zamindar
Diwan-i-Arz  Ministry of Military Affairs Khums  Tax on plunder
Diwan-i-Insha Ministry of Royal Correspondences Zawabit Non Shariat state laws
Faujdar Incharge of Sarkar Diwan-i-Risalat Religious affairs
Malfuzat Sayings of Sufi saint Diwan-i-Kul Wazir or chief imperial fiscal minister.
Tankah Silver coin Diwan-i-Wizarat Department of finance
Khalisa Land revenue directly for the imperial treasury Wilayat The spiritual territory of a Sufi
Kanqah Sufi lodging Misl Sikh Regions (12
Umra Collective term for nobility Watandar Desais & Deshmukh (collective term)


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