TRIBES IN INDIA
Table of Contents
- TRIBES IN INDIA
- TRIBES IN NEWS
- MEDARAM JATHARA 2022
- KOYA TRIBE
- KHASI TRIBE
- MANKIDIA TRIBE
- HAKKI-PIKKI TRIBE
- KONYAK TRIBES
- TAI KHAMTI TRIBES
- CHAKMAS AND HAJONGS
- DARLONG COMMUNITY
- BIRSA MUNDA JAYANTI – JANJATIYA GAURAV DIVAS
- MUNDAPOTA KELA
- THARU TRIBES
- SARNA TRIBES
- SIDDI COMMUNITY
- RABARI, BHARVAD, CHARAN
In this article we will read about:
- Scheduled tribes and constitutional and legal provisions for them.
- Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
- Tribes that have been in news in 2020 and 2021.
Important facts about tribes in India
Visit PARTICULARLY VULNERABLE TRIBAL GROUPS (PVTGS) for more information.
Committees Related to Tribal Communities
Read more about Tribal Rights- Click here
TRIBES IN NEWS
MEDARAM JATHARA 2022
- Second-largest fair in India, after the Kumbh Mela
- Celebrated by the second-largest Tribal Community of Telangana- the Koya tribe for four days.
- Medaram Jatara is also known as Sammakka Saralamma Jatara.
- It is a tribal festival honouring the fight of a mother and daughter, Sammakka and Saralamma, with the reigning rulers against an unjust law.
- The Jatra begins at Medaram in Tadvai Mandal in Warangal district.
- Medaram is a remote place in the Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary, a part of Dandakaranya, the largest surviving forest belt in the region.
- It is celebrated once in two years in the month of “Magha” (February) on the full moon day.
- People offer bangaram/gold (jaggery) of a quantity equal to their weight to the goddesses and take a holy bath in Jampanna Vagu, a tributary to River Godavari.
- It was declared a State Festival in 1996.
- Koya tribe is the largest adivasi tribe of Telangana and listed as Scheduled Tribe in Telangana.
- The community is spread across Telugu speaking states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
- Koyas popularly call themselves as Dorala Sattam (Lords group) and Putta Dora (original lords). Koyas call themselves “Koitur” in their dialect, like Gonds.
- Habitat and livelihood:
- The Godavari and Sabari rivers which are flowing through their area of habitation exercise a profound influence on Koyas’ economic, social and cultural life.
- The Koyas have mainly settled cultivators.
- They grow Jowar, Ragi, Bajra and other millets.
- Many Koya People have forgotten their Koya Dialect and adopted Telugu as their mother tongue but some in other parts still speak the Koya dialect.
- Religion and festival:
- Lord Bhima, Korra Rajulu, Mamili and Potaraju are the important deities to Koyas.
- Their main festivals are Vijji Pandum (seeds charming festival) and Kondala Kolupu (festival to appease Hill deities).
- Koyas perform a robust colourful dance called Permakok ata (Bison horn dance) during festivals and marriage ceremonies
- Recently, the Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council (KHADC) in Meghalaya announced that it would introduce the ‘Khasi Inheritance of Property Bill, 2021.
- The bill is aimed at the “equitable distribution” of parental property among siblings in the Khasi community.
- If implemented, the proposed Bill would modify an age-old customary practice of inheritance of the matrilineal Khasi tribe.
- The three tribes of Meghalaya — Khasis, Jaintias, and Garos — practise a matrilineal system of inheritance.
- In this system, lineage and descent are traced through the mother’s clan.
- Matrilineal is Not Matriarchal: People often confuse matrilineal with matriarchal, where women function as heads.
- While women may have freedom of mobility and easier access to education, they are not decision-makers in Meghalaya.
- There are barely any women in positions of power, in politics, or heading institutions.
- Khasi tribe:
- The Khasis inhabit the eastern part of Meghalaya, in the Khasi and Jaintia Hills.
- Khasis residing in the Jaintia hills are now better known as Jaintias.
- They are also called Pnars.
- The Khasis occupying the northern lowlands and foothills are generally called Bhois.
- The Khasi people are an indigenous ethnic group of Meghalaya in north-eastern India with a significant population in the bordering state of Assam, and in certain parts of Bangladesh.
- The Khasi people form the majority of the population of the eastern part of Meghalaya, and is the state’s largest community, with around 48% of the population of Meghalaya.
- Constitutional Status: Under the Constitution of India, the Khasis have been granted the status of Scheduled Tribe.
- Dress: The traditional Khasi male dress is “Jymphong” or a longish sleeveless coat without a collar, fastened by thongs in front.
- The Khasi traditional female dress is rather elaborate with several pieces of cloth, giving the body a cylindrical shape.
- Food & Drinks: The staple food of Khasis is rice.
- They also take fish and meat.
- Use of rice beer is a must for every ceremonial and religious occasion.
- The newly constituted Panda committee under the tribal affairs ministry is to look into the issue of forest rights of the Mankidia tribe in Simlipal Tiger Reserve.
- The Mankidia are a nomadic tribal group of people who live in Odisha.
- The term ‘Mankidia’ is derived from Odia's word ‘Mankada’ meaning monkey.
- This is in reference to their ability in catching monkeys.
- They are considered to be a scheduled tribe by the Indian government.
- The 2011 census reported a population of 2,222 members in the tribe.
- They are categorised as a particularly vulnerable tribal group.
- The group is an offshoot of the Birhor tribe of the Chota Nagpur region.
- The Mankidia tribal people make a livelihood in the Simlipal Tiger Reserve region by collecting siali fibre.
- This region is, however, the core area of the tiger reserve.
- The tribe was given habitat rights at the level of District Level Committee in August 2016.
- But the forest department of the state has been unwilling to give the land away and hence the land titles haven’t been granted to the tribe.
Simlipal Tiger Reserve:
- Recently, some people of the HakkiPikki Tribe survived Covid-19 in Karnataka.
- The HakkiPikki tribes are semi-nomadic tribal people, have four clans namely the Gujrathioa, Kaliwala, Mewara and Panwara.
- They speak many south Indian languages such as Kannada, Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam along with Vagribooli which is similar to Gujarati.
- The HakkiPikki, meaning “bird catchers” in Kannada.
- It is a Scheduled Tribe in Karnataka.
- The origin of HakkiPikki tribal communities has a rich history and is said to be an ancestral relation with the legendary Ranapratap Singh.
- The HakkiPikki tribal community are a Kshatriya or warrior tribal community who had to migrate to southern India after their defeat by Mughal kings.
- Konyak tribes were at the centre of recent violence that erupted in Nagaland after Indian forces mistakenly killed civilians
- About Konyaks:
- The Konyaks are the largest tribal group in Nagaland, inhabited in and around Mon District.
- The Anghs/Wangs are their traditional chiefs whom they hold in high esteem.
- Facial tattoos were earned for taking an enemy's head.
- The Konyaks were the last to give up the practice of head-hunting – severing heads of enemies after attacking rival tribes – as late as the 1980s.
- Other unique traditional practices that set the Konyaks apart are gunsmithing, iron-smelting, brass works, and gunpowder-making.
- They are also adept in making 'janglaü' (machetes) and wooden sculptures.
- They are also found in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Myanmar.
- Aoleng, a festival celebrated in the first week of April to welcome the spring and also to invoke the Almighty's (Kahwang) blessing upon the land before seed-sowing, is the biggest festival of the Konyaks
- ‘Lao Ong Mo' is the traditional harvest festival celebrated in the months of August/September.
- Significance in Naga Peace Process
- Mon is the only district in Nagaland where the separatist group has not been able to set up base camps, largely due to resistance from the Konyaks.
- The Konyaks therefore, are imperative for a smooth resolution of the peace talks, as well as the post-talk peace process in the state.
TAI KHAMTI TRIBES
- Recently deputy chief minister of Arunachal Pradesh requested the central government to declare the Tai Khamti-British War of 1839 as the first war of India’s independence against the British.
- About Tai Khamti tribe:
- They are a Tai ethnic group native to Myanmar
- In India, they are found in Namsai district and Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh.
- Smaller numbers are also present in Assam.
- The word ‘Khampti’ means ‘a land full of gold’.
- The Tai Khamtis who inhabit the region around the Tengapani basin were descendants of migrants who came during the century from the Hkamti long region, the mountainous valley of the Irrawaddy.
- The Tai-Khampti is the only tribe in the state to be known to have their own script which the people call it Tai script (Lik-Tai).
- It originated from the Shan (Tai) script of Myanmar.
- They are settled agriculturists.
- Sangken is the main festival of the Khamti.
- The Khamti society is divided into classes, each signifying distinct status in the social hierarchy.
- The chiefs occupy the highest positions, followed by the priests, who wield considerable influence over all ranks
- The community is greatly orthodox and all its socio-cultural activities are religious.
- They are believers of Theravada(Hinayana) Buddhism.
- The Khamti society is divided into classes, each signifying distinct status in the social hierarchy.
- Khampti Dance:
- It is also known as ‘ka pung’ (‘ka’ implies ‘dance’and ‘pung’ means ‘story’).
- Khampti dance is a dance-drama that reflects the rich culture of the Buddhists in the territory and unfolds the myths and stories of moral values.
- It marks the celebration of Buddhist festivals such as Khamsang, Sangken, Potwah, Poi Lu kyong, Poi Lu Kyong kammathan etc.
- The Khamptis are also famous for their ‘cockfight dance’, it is called Ka-Fi fai .
- The dances are accompanied by musical instruments like drums (gongs), cymbals (pi seng), flutes (pee) etc
- Tai Khamti revolt in 1839:
- It took places between the Tai Khamti people and the British.
- The theatre of this war was some 2,400 km east of Meerut in Uttar Pradesh where the mutiny began.
- During the war, Tai Khamtis resisted colonization by the British.
- Some 80 British soldiers, including Col. Adam White, were killed in the resultant conflict.
CHAKMAS AND HAJONGS
- The Committee for Citizenship Rights of Chakmas and Hajongs of Arunachal Pradesh (CCRCHAP) has stated that Chakmas and Hajongs will not cooperate with any census being taken on them.
- About Chakmas and Hajongs:
- Chakmas and Hajongs were originally residents of the Chittagong Hill Tracts of erstwhile East Pakistan (Bangladesh), who had to flee when their land was submerged by the Kaptai dam project in the 1960s.
- The Chakmas, who are Buddhist, and Hajongs, who are Hindus, also faced religious persecution in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
- Chakmas and Hajongs entered India through the then Lushai Hills district of Assam (now Mizoram).
- The Centre moved the majority of them to the North East Frontier Agency (NEFA), which is now Arunachal Pradesh.
- Mizoram, Assam and Tripura also have significant Chakma populations.
- Their numbers have gone up from about 5,000 in 1964-69 to one lakh. At present, they don’t have citizenship and land rights but are provided basic amenities by the state government.
- Recent issue:
- In 2015, the Supreme Court directed the Centre to grant citizenship to Chakma and Hajongs who had migrated from Bangladesh in 1964-69.
- They did not directly come into the ambit of the Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019 (CAA) because Arunachal Pradesh is among the states exempted from the CAA since it has an Inner Line Permit to regulate entry of outsiders.
- Stiff opposition from the state government had stalled the implementation of SC directive.
- Since the 1980s, the All Arunachal Pradesh Students’ Union (AAPSU) has spearheaded a mass movement against granting citizenship to Chakmas and Hajongs.
- The AAPSU fears that the refugees could soon outnumber the indigenous population and influence electoral outcomes.
- The Lok Sabha recently passed a bill to amend a constitutional order to include Darlong, a tribal clan in Tripura which was among the generic Halam community till now, in the list of Scheduled Tribes (ST).
- Darlong is a tribal community of 11,000 people.
- Despite its small population, the community has a high prevalence of education, and cultural activities and members of the community are serving in different high positions in the local administration.
- Darlongs, despite being Scheduled Tribes, were never given ST certificates.
- Since they were considered a generic tribe under the Kuki community, they were handed their tribal certificates as members of ‘Kuki’ community.
- The subsequent identity crisis among them, especially Darlong youths, who were equipped with modern education, culminated in the demand for a separate statutory identity of their own in 1995.
- The group is a small tribal clan but has produced a high number of educated people proportionate to its population in the state.
- People from the Darlong community, like many other tribal communities, are now serving in high positions in the state administration, academia, and public services.
- Tribal musicologist and Rosem (tribal instrument) maestro Thanga Darlong has conferred the prestigious Padma Shri award a few years back for his contribution to culture.
BIRSA MUNDA JAYANTI – JANJATIYA GAURAV DIVAS
- The Union Cabinet has decided to declare November 15 as ‘Janjatiya Gaurav Divas’ to mark the birth anniversary of revered tribal leader and freedom fighter Birsa Munda.
- Birsa Munda (1875-1900):
- Birsa Munda was an Indian tribal freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero who belonged to the Munda tribe.
- He spearheaded a tribal religious millenarian movement that arose in the Bengal Presidency (now Jharkhand) in the late 19th century, during the British Raj.
- The Munda people are an Austroasiatic speaking ethnic group of India.
- They predominantly speak the Mundari language as their native language, which belongs to the Munda subgroup of Austroasiatic languages.
- The Munda are found mainly concentrated in the Chhotanagpur Plateau region, which covers most of Jharkhand, as well as in neighbouring regions of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and West Bengal.
- The Munda also reside in adjacent areas of Madhya Pradesh as well as in portions of Bangladesh and the state of Tripura.
- They are one of India's largest scheduled tribes. Munda people in Tripura are also known as Mura, and in Madhya Pradesh, they are often called Mudas.
- Nomadic hunters in the Indian tribal belt became farmers who were employed in basketwork and weaving.
- With the listing of the Munda people as Scheduled Tribes, many are employed in various governmental organisations (particularly Indian Railways).
- Members of the Mundapota Kela community in Odisha perform the unthinkable act of their heads buried in soil, which requires exceptional breath control, for a living.
- The community — Mundapota Kela (a denotified tribe) — is left with few members who earn a livelihood with this bizarre act.
- It is believed to have migrated to Odisha from the Rayalaseema area of Andhra Pradesh decades ago.
- Being street performers, they travel from one village to another and bury their heads in soil for several minutes.
- They collect rice, vegetables and money from villagers for putting up the show.
- The Uttar Pradesh government has recently embarked upon a scheme to take the unique culture of its ethnic Tharu tribe across the world.
- The community belongs to the Terai lowlands, amid the Shivaliks of the lower Himalayas. Most of them are forest dwellers and some practise agriculture.
- The word Tharu is believed to be derived from their, meaning followers of Theravada Buddhism.
- The Tharus live in both India and Nepal.
- In the Indian Terai, they live mostly in Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar.
- According to the 2011 census, the Scheduled Tribe population in Uttar Pradesh was more than 11 lakh; this number is estimated to have crossed 20 lakh now.
- The biggest chunk of this tribal population is made up of Tharus.
- Members of the tribe survive on wheat, corn and vegetables grown close to their homes. A majority still live in the forest.
- Tharu language, food, and culture
- They speak various dialects of Tharu, a language of the Indo-Aryan subgroup, and variants of Hindi, Urdu, and Awadhi.
- In central Nepal, they speak a variant of Bhojpuri, while in eastern Nepal, they speak a variant of Maithili.
- Tharus worship Lord Shiva as Mahadev and call their supreme being “Narayan”, who they believe is the provider of sunshine, rain, and harvests.
- Tharu women have stronger property rights than is allowed to women in mainstream North Indian Hindu custom.
- Standard items on the Tharu plate are bagiya or dhikri – which is a steamed dish of rice flour that is eaten with chutney or curry – and ghonghi, an edible snail that is cooked in a curry made of coriander, chili, garlic, and onion.
- What is this scheme about?
- The UP government is working to connect Tharu villages in the districts of Balrampur, Bahraich, Lakhimpur and Pilibhit bordering Nepal, with the homestay scheme of the UP Forest Department.
- The idea is to offer tourists an experience of living in the natural Tharu habitat, in traditional huts made of grass collected mainly from the forests.
- Tharu homeowners will be able to charge tourists directly for the accommodation and home-cooked meals.
- The government expects both domestic and international tourists to avail of the opportunity to obtain a taste of the special Tharu culture by staying with them, observing their lifestyle, food habits, and attire.
- The Jharkhand government convened a special Assembly session to pass a resolution to recognise the Sarna religion and include it as a separate code in the Census of 2021.
- Sarna Religion
- The followers of the Sarna faith believe pray to nature.
- The holy grail of the faith is “Jal (water), Jungle (forest), Zameen (land)” and its followers pray to the trees and hills while believing in protecting the forest areas.
- Jharkhand has 32 tribal groups of which eight are from Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups.
- While many follow the Hindu religion, some have converted to Christianity — this has become one of the planks of demanding a separate code “to save religious identity”— as various tribal organisations put it.
- A sacred grove is any grove of trees that are of special religious importance to a particular culture.
- Need for Sarna Code:
- It is believed that 50 lakhs tribes in the entire country put their religion as ‘Sarna’ in the 2011 census, although it was not a code.
- The resolution will seek a special column for followers of the Sarna religion in the Census, 2021.
- At present, they are not classified as separate entities.
- Politics around the code
- Many of the tribals who follow this faith have later converted to Christianity—the state has more than 4% Christians most of whom are tribals.
- Some who still follow the Sarna faith believe the converted tribals are taking the benefits of reservation as a minority as well as the benefits are given to Schedule Tribes.
- They also believe that benefits should be given specifically to them and not those who have converted.
- What sense does a separate code make?
- The protection of their language and history is an important aspect of tribals.
- Between 1871 and 1951, the tribals had a different code. However, it was changed around 1961-62.
- Experts argue that when today the entire world is focusing on reducing pollution and protecting the environment, it is prudent that Sarna becomes a religious code as the soul of this religion is to protect nature and the environment.
- The COVID-19 pandemic has reached the Bondas, a PVTGs community residing in the hill ranges of Malkangiri district in Odisha.
- The Bondas are the Munda ethnic group who live in the isolated hill regions of the Malkangiri district of southwestern Odisha near the junction of the three states of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and Andhra Pradesh.
- They are a scheduled tribe of India and are also known as the Remo (meaning “people” in the Bonda language).
- The tribe is one of the oldest and most primitive in mainland India; their culture has changed little in more than a thousand years.
- Their isolation and known aggressiveness continue to preserve their culture despite the pressures of an expanding Indian population.
- Non-Brus of Tripura has proposed six places for settling the displaced Brus from Mizoram and set a limit for the number of families to be accommodated in two subdivisions that have borne the brunt of the 23-year-old refugee crisis.
- Reangs or Brus are the second largest ethnic group in Mizoram.
- Their exodus in 1997 was spurred by violent clashes in Mamith subdivision, a Reang-dominated area when they demanded the creation of an autonomous council that was vehemently opposed by Mizo groups.
- Around 34,000 people were forced to live in sub-human conditions in tents in Tripura. No solution could be reached all these years.
- These people were housed in temporary camps at Kanchanpur, in North Tripura.
- The Siddi community gets its first lawmaker in Karnataka. They are included as the Scheduled Tribes in Karnataka.
- The Siddi is also known as Sidi, Siddhi, Sheedi or Habshi, are an ethnic group inhabiting India and Pakistan.
- They are sometimes referred to as Afro-Indians.
- They are descended from the Bantu peoples of the East African region.
- Similarly, another term for Siddis, habshi, is held to be derived from the common name for the captains of the Abyssinian ships that also first delivered Siddi slaves to the subcontinent.
- They are primarily Muslims, although some are Hindus and others belong to the Catholic Church.
- How they come to India?
- The first Siddis are thought to have arrived in India in 628 AD at the Bharuch port. Several others followed with the first Arab conquest of the subcontinent in 712 AD.
- The latter groups are believed to have been soldiers with Muhammad bin Qasim’s Arab army and were called Zanjis.
- In the Delhi Sultanate period prior to the rise of the Mughals in India, Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut was a prominent Siddi slave-turned-nobleman who was a close confidant of Razia Sultana.
- Siddis were also brought as slaves by the Deccan Sultanates.
- They also served in the Navy of Shivaji Maharaj.
- Several former slaves rose to high ranks in the military and administration, the most prominent of which was Malik Ambar.
- Later the Siddi population was added to via Bantu peoples from Southeast Africa that had been brought to the Indian subcontinent as slaves by the Portuguese.
- Arunachal CM released a book titled “Tangams: An Ethnolinguistic Study Of The Critically Endangered Group of Arunachal Pradesh”.
- The Tangams are little-known community within the larger Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh and reside in the hamlet of Kugging in Upper Siang district’s Paindem circle.
- In 1975, the community’s population was pegged at 2,000 spread across 25 villages.
- From 2016 to 2020, a team from the Centre for Endangered Languages (CFEL) of Rajiv Gandhi University (RGU), carried out extensive field research and documented the community.
- Their survey revealed that Tangams were now concentrated in only one village (Kugging), with only 253 reported speakers.
- As per the UNESCO World Atlas of Endangered Languages (2009), Tangam — an oral language that belongs to the Tani group, under the greater Tibeto-Burman language family — is marked ‘critically endangered.
- Why are there only a few speakers?
- Kugging is surrounded by a number of villages inhabited by Adi subgroups such as Shimong, Minyongs, as well as the Buddhist tribal community of Khambas, among others.
- To communicate with their neighbours over the years, the Tangams have become multilingual, speaking not just Tangam, but other tongues such as Shimong, Khamba and Hindi.
- They rarely speak their own language now since their population is restricted to a single village. Moreover, the Tangams are relatively unknown — even within their state.
- The village lacks proper infrastructure in all basic sectors of education, health, drinking water facilities, roads and electricity.
- Roads have reached Kugging only in 2018.
- Not a single person from the community has gone to university.
- Why are the languages at risk?
- The diversity of languages has led various communities to depend on English, Assamese and a colloquial variety of Hindi called Arunachalee Hindi as the link languages.
- Many believe this shift has led to the loss of the native languages of the tribal communities.
- Even the numerically larger tribes like Nyishi, Galo, Mishmi, Tangsa etc. whose population exceed the ten thousand mark are also not safe from endangerment, hence marked unsafe.
- The younger generation of these tribes especially in the urban areas has mostly discarded the use of their mother tongue.
RABARI, BHARVAD, CHARAN
- The Gujarat government will constitute a commission to identify the members of Rabari, Bharvad and Charan communities who are eligible to get the benefits of Schedule Tribe (ST) status.
- The Rabari, also called the Rewari are an indigenous tribal caste of nomadic cattle and camel herders and shepherds that live throughout northwest India, primarily in the states of Gujarat, Punjab and Rajasthan.
- The word “Rabari” translates as “outsiders”, a fair description of their primary occupation and status within Indian society.
- They speak ‘Bhopa’ which is a mixture of Gujarati, Kachchi, Marwari words and Pharasi (Persian) and use Gujarati script.
- The Rabari are known for their distinctive art, particularly the mirrored and whitewashed mud sculpture-work that adorns their homes and villages.
- Rabari women are responsible for this artwork and also traditionally spin the wool from their sheep and goats, and give it to local weavers to make their woollen skirts, veils, blankets and turbans.
- The Bharwad are tribals primarily engaged in herding livestock.
- The Bharwad name may derive from the Gujarati word badawad, constructed from bada (sheep) and wada (a compound or enclosure).
- The Bharwads have numerous subgroups known as ataks or guls (clans) whose main purpose is to determine eligibility for marriage.
- Constrained exogamy is practised between clans.
- The Charan, also called Gadhvi, is a small tribe in Gujarat and the name Charan is derived from the word ‘Char’ which means grazing.
- Members of the caste are considered to be divine by a large section of society.
- Women of the caste are adored as mother goddesses by other major communities of this region.
- The Chinese Army’s intrusion in Chumur and Demchok has left Ladakh’s nomadic herding Changpa community cut off from large parts of summer pastures.
- Pashmina shawl is a landmark product of the Kashmir Valley.
- It carries only a BIS certification and not a Geographical Indicator.
- The Changpa of Ladakh is high altitude pastoralists, raising mainly yaks and goats.
- Among the Ladakh Changpa, those who are still nomadic are known as Phalpa, and they take their herds from in the Hanley Valley to the village of Lato.
- Hanley is home to six isolated settlements, where the sedentary Changpa, the Fangpa reside.
- Despite their different lifestyles, both these groups intermarry.
- The Changpa speak Changskhat, a dialect of Tibetan, and practice Tibetan Buddhism.
- What is the issue?
- The Chinese Army has taken over 16 kanals (two acres) of cultivable land in Chumur and advanced around 15 km inside Demchok, taking over traditional grazing pastures and cultivable lowlands.
- In a cascading effect, this has resulted in a sharp rise in deaths of young Pashmina goats this year in the Korzok-Chumur belt of Changthang plateau in Ladakh.
- This incursion has destabilized the annual seasonal migration of livestock, including yaks and Pashmina goats.
- The newscard is based on the PIB news which discusses the success story of Katkari Tribe, a PVTG in Maharashtra regarding the implementation of Van Dhan Yojana.
- The Katkari is an Scheduled Tribe mostly belonging to the state of Maharashtra.
- They are bilingual, speaking the Katkari language, a dialect of the Marathi-Konkani languages, with each other; they speak Marathi with the Marathi speakers, who are a majority in the populace where they live.
- In Maharashtra, the Katkari has been designated a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG), along with two other groups included in this sub-category: the Madia Gond and the Kolam.
- In the case of the Katkari this vulnerability derives from their history as a nomadic, forest-dwelling people listed by the British Raj under the Criminal Tribes Act of 1871, a stigma that continues to this day.
- The Centre has assured it will hold peace talks with all Kuki militant groups and their issue would be resolved in the next five years.
- The Kukis constitute one of several hill tribes within India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.
- In Northeast India, they are present in all states except Arunachal Pradesh.
- Some fifty tribes of Kuki peoples in India are recognised as scheduled tribes.
- The first resistance to British hegemony by the Kuki people was the Kuki Rebellion of 1917-19 after which their territory was subjugated by the British and divided between the administrations of British India and British Burma.
- Up until their defeat in 1919, the Kukis had been an independent people ruled by their chieftains.
- The majority of Kukis are Christians. Traditionally, the Kukis were animists.