Studies on the Impact of Climate Change and Initiatives to counter it.

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Context: Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change conducted studies on the impact of climate change in India which are summarized in the ‘Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation’ chapters. For the SNC (Second National Communication, a report to  UNFCCC), climate change scenarios were analysed using a high-resolution regional climate model. 

Prelims: Current events of national and international importance.
Mains:GS III-

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
  • Disaster and disaster management.

Impact predicted :

  • Simulations for the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s indicate all-round warming for the Indian subcontinent.
  • Impact of climate change and climate variability on the water resources are likely to affect irrigated agriculture, installed power capacity, environmental flows in the dry season and wet season.
  • There is a paucity of data to establish a direct correlation of climate change with diseases and deaths. However, reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), World Health Organization (WHO) and other widely available literature indicate the health impacts of various climate variables including extreme weather events, air pollution, change in precipitation etc. 
  • Various climate model simulation studies also project possible linkages of climate change with frequency and intensity of weather events.
  • Weather extremes in India in recent years (2014-2017), as reported under the second Biennial Update Report (2018) has increased.

So what initiative the governments in India have taken to deal with the crisis?

National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), 2008

  • It aims at creating awareness among the representatives of the public, different agencies of the government, scientists, industry and the communities on the threat posed by climate change and the steps to counter it.
  • There are 8 national missions forming the core of the NAPCC which represent multi-pronged, long term and integrated strategies for achieving key goals in climate change. These are-
    • National Solar Mission (MNRE) –  Goal for increasing the development of solar technologies such as increasing the production of photo-voltaic to 1000 MW/year, Establishing the solar research center and promoting international collaboration.
    • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (MoP)– Energy consumption reduction in industries; trading energy-savings certificates; energy incentives like lower taxes on energy-efficient appliances.
    • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat (MoHUA) – Better waste management; power from waste; extending energy conservation building code; incentivizing fuel-efficient vehicles; energy efficiency as part of urban planning; public transport promotion.National Water Mission (MoWR) – Improving water use efficiency with the use of pricing and other measures.
    • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (MoS&T) – conserve biodiversity, forest cover, and glaciers of the Himalayan region.
    • National Mission for “Green India” (MoEFCC) – expanding forest cover from 23% to 33% of India’s territory.
    • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (MoA) – climate-resilient crops, crop insurance, sustainable agricultural practices.
    • National Mission on Strategic Knowledge Platform for Climate Change (MoS&T) – Climate Science Research Fund; better climate modeling; international collaboration; private sector participation in the technologies for the adaptation and mitigation.

National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC):

  • Under NAFCC 100% central grant is provided to the State Governments for implementing climate change adaptation projects.
  • The Scheme has been designed to fulfill the objectives of the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) and operationalize the State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCCs).
  • The objective of the fund is to assist states/UTs that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in meeting the cost of adaptation.
  • The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) is the National Implementing Entity (NIE) responsible for the implementation of adaptation projects under the NAFCC.
  • Under this scheme, the Union Government encourages States to come up with innovative and scalable projects to develop resilience against climate change and mainstream it in the planning processes.

National Monsoon Mission (NMM):

  • Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) had launched NMM in 2012 with a vision to develop a state-of-the-art dynamical prediction system for monsoon rainfall on different time scales.
  • The responsibility of execution and coordination of this mission is vested to the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune.
  • improved prediction of monsoon rainfall on extended range to seasonal time scale (16 days to one season) and
  • improved prediction of temperature, rainfall and extreme weather events on short to medium range time scale (up to 15 days).

National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP):

  • NCRMP was started by the Ministry of Home Affairs to mitigate vulnerability to the cyclone and hazards prone coastal communities.
  • After the formation of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), management of the project was transferred to NDMA in September 2006.
  • NCRMP-I covers States of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.
  • NCRMP-II covers States of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, and West Bengal.
  • The project is implemented by the Ministry of Home Affairs through the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and executed by the respective State Disaster Management Authorities at the State level.
  • The project is partly funded by the World Bank.
  • The overall objective of the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (‘NCRMP’) is to minimize vulnerability to cyclones and make people and infrastructure disaster resilient in harmony with conservation of the coastal eco-system in the cyclone hazard-prone States and Union Territories of India.

National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA):

  • The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the apex statutory body for disaster management in India.
  • The NDMA was formally constituted on 27th September 2006, in accordance with the Disaster Management Act, 2005 with Prime Minister as its Chairperson and nine other members, and one such member to be designated as Vice-Chairperson.
  • Mandate: Its primary purpose is to coordinate response to natural or man-made disasters and for capacity-building in disaster resiliency and crisis response. It is also the apex body to lay down policies, plans and guidelines for Disaster Management to ensure timely and effective response to disasters.
  • Vision: To build a safer and disaster resilient India by a holistic, proactive, technology-driven and sustainable development strategy that involves all stakeholders and fosters a culture of prevention, preparedness, and mitigation.

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