Tiger Corridors in India

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Context: The Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change has informed about the Tiger corridors in Country in Lok Sabha.

Relevance:
Prelims: Current events of national and international importance.
Mains: GS III-

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment Disaster and disaster management.

Tiger corridors in India:

  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority in collaboration with the Wildlife Institute of India has mapped out 32 major corridors across the country.
  • These are operationalized through a Tiger Conservation Plan, mandated under section 38V of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

The list of macro/landscape level tiger corridors are as under:

Landscape Corridor States/ Country
Shivalik Hills & Gangetic Plains (i) Rajaji-Corbett Uttarakhand
(ii) Corbett-Dudhwa Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal
(iii) Dudhwa-Kishanpur Katerniaghat Uttar Pradesh, Nepal
     
Central India & Eastern Ghats (i) Ranthambhore-Kuno-Madhav Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan
(ii) Bandhavgarh-Achanakmar Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh
(iii) Bandhavgarh-Sanjay Dubri-Guru Ghasidas Madhya Pradesh
(iv) Guru Ghasidas-Palamau-Law along Chhattisgarh & Jharkhand
(v) Kanha-Achanakmar Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh
(vi) Kanha-Pench Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra
(vii) Pench-Satpura-Melghat Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra
(viii) Kanha-Navegaon Nagzira-Tadoba-Indravati Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh
(ix) Indravati-Udanti Sitanadi-Sunabeda Chhattisgarh, Odisha
(x) Similipal-Satkosia Odisha
(xi) Nagarjunasagar-Sri Venkateshwara National Park Andhra Pradesh
     
Western Ghats (i) Sahyadri-Radhanagari-Goa Maharashtra, Goa
(ii) Dandeli Anshi-Shravathi Valley Karnataka
(iii) Kudremukh-Bhadra Karnataka
(iv) Nagarahole-Pusphagiri-Talakavery Karnataka
(v) Nagarahole-Bandipur-Mudumalai-Wayanad Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
(vi) Nagarahole-Mudumalai-Wayanad Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
(vii) Parambikulam-Eranikulam-Indira Gandhi Kerala, Tamil Nadu
(viii) Kalakad Mundanthurai-Periyar Kerala, Tamil Nadu
     
North East (i) Kaziranga-Itanagar WLS Assam, Arunachal Pradesh
(ii) Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong Assam
(iii) Kaziranga-Nameri Assam
(iv) Kaziranga-Orang Assam
(v) Kaziranga-Papum Pane Assam
(vi) Manas-Buxa Assam, West Bengal, Bhutan
(vii) Pakke-Nameri-Sonai Rupai-Manas Arunachal Pradesh, Assam
(viii) Dibru Saikhowa-D’Ering-Mehaong Assam, Arunachal Pradesh
(ix) Kamlang-Kane-Tale Valley Arunachal Pradesh
(x) Buxa-Jaldapara West Bengal

 

Further, a 3 pronged strategy to manage human-tiger negative interactions has been advocated as follows:-

Material and logistical support:

  • Funding support through the ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger, is provided to tiger reserves for acquiring capacity in terms of infrastructure and material, to deal with tigers dispersing out of source areas. 
  • These are solicited by tiger reserves through an Annual Plan of Operation (APO) every year which stems out from an overarching Tiger Conservation Plan (TCP), mandated under Section 38 V of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. 
  • Inter alia, activities such as payment of ex-gratia and compensation, periodic awareness campaigns to sensitize, guide and advise the general populace on man-animal conflict, dissemination of information through various forms of media, procurement of immobilization equipment, drugs, training and capacity building of forest staff to deal with conflict events are generally solicited.

Restricting habitat interventions:

  • Based on the carrying capacity of tigers in a tiger reserve, habitat interventions are restricted through an overarching TCP. 
  • In case tiger numbers are at carrying capacity levels, it is advised that habitat interventions should be limited so that there is no excessive spillover of wildlife including tigers thereby minimizing man-animal conflict. 
  • Further, in buffer areas around tiger reserves, habitat interventions are restricted such that they are sub-optimal vis-à-vis the core/critical tiger habitat areas, judicious enough to facilitate dispersal to other rich habitat areas only.

Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs):

  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority has issued the following three SOPs to deal with man-animal conflict which are available in public domain:
  • To deal with emergency arising due to straying of tigers in human-dominated landscapes
  • To deal with tiger depredation on livestock
  • For active management towards rehabilitation of tigers from source areas at the landscape level.

Project Tiger:

  • It was launched in 1973 and Aims at conserving India’s national animal i.e. Tiger.
  • The tiger reserves are constituted on a core/buffer strategy.
  • The core areas have the legal status of a national park or a sanctuary, whereas the buffer or peripheral areas are a mix of forest and non-forest land, managed as a multiple-use area.
  • The Project Tiger aims to foster an exclusive tiger agenda in the core areas of tiger reserves, with an inclusive people-oriented agenda in the buffer.
  • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change providing central assistance to the tiger States for tiger conservation in designated tiger reserves.

The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA):

  • It is a statutory body of the Ministry, with an overarching supervisory / coordination role, performing functions as provided in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • Wild tigers are found in 18 States in India
  • The All India tiger estimation is carried out once in every four years.



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