What's the article about?
- It talks about the winners of Nobel Prize for Physics for 2023 and their research.
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- The Nobel Prize in Physics 2023 has been awarded to Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz, and Anne L'Huillier for their work on creating ultra-short pulses of light that can be used to study the rapid processes in which electrons move or change energy.
- The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences recognized their experiments, which have given humanity new tools for exploring the world of electrons inside atoms and molecules.
- Anne L'Huillier's Discoveries:
- In 1987, Anne L'Huillier discovered that an infrared beam shone on a volume of a noble gas produced multiple overtones: waves whose wavelength was an integer-fraction of the ‘original’ light wave.
- Her team also observed a peculiar relationship between the original wave’s frequency and the intensity of the overtones, and explained it using the existing laws of quantum mechanics.
- If the overtone waves’ peaks lined up, they would combine to produce a more intense peak (constructive interference); when one wave’s peak coincided with another’s trough, they would cancel themselves out (destructive interference).
- Physicists realized that this reinforcing effect could be timed such that the gas emitted intense peaks with a pulse duration of a few attoseconds, with destructive interference achieving the cut-off.
- Pierre Agostini and Ferenc Krausz's Work:
- Dr. Agostini and company demonstrated this in 2001 by producing light with a pulse duration of 250 attoseconds.
- In the same year, Dr. Krausz and company isolated a single pulse, 650 attoseconds in duration, and used it to measure the kinetic energy of electrons kicked out from krypton atoms by a bunch of photons. Attosecond physics had finally arrived.
- Applications of Attosecond Physics:
- The specific dynamics of electrons matter in settings with potentially immediate value, including biochemistry, diagnostics, superconductivity, and manufacturing techniques.
- Thanks to the laureates’ work, scientists have a way to illuminate hitherto unknown possibilities with discoveries of phenomena that live and die in attoseconds.
- The 2016 chemistry laureates were feted for building motors with individual molecules — a feat with no known applications at the time, but to achieve it, they devised techniques that improved other areas of chemistry.
- The Nobel Prize in Physics 2023 has recognized the groundbreaking work of Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz, and Anne L'Huillier in creating ultra-short pulses of light that can be used to study the rapid processes in which electrons move or change energy.
- Their work has given humanity new tools for exploring the world of electrons inside atoms and molecules, with potential applications in biochemistry, diagnostics, superconductivity, and manufacturing techniques.
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