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Table of Contents


Scheme Concerned Ministry Features

‘Meendum Manjappai’ scheme

Tamil Nadu government
  • Context:
    • Tamil Nadu CM has launched the ‘Meendum Manjappai’ Scheme to promote the use of cloth bags by the public and discourage the use of plastic bags.
  • About Meendum Manjappai Scheme:
    • This awareness campaign on using ‘yellow’ cloth bags or ‘manjapai’ as it is called in Tamil, is aimed at encouraging the people to return to the use of this eco-friendly bag and discard the plastic bags.
    • Manjal means turmeric in Tamil which has curative power. The manjapai was an integral part of daily life in the past.
    • Traditionally the manjapais were used for shopping, carrying books, ration and even cash.
    • The state government had enforced a ban on the production, use, storage, distribution, transportation or sale of 14 types of plastics with effect from January 1, 2019.

Perform, Achieve and Trade Scheme

Ministry of Power
  • Context:
    • A recent report released by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) mentions that the Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme introduced in 2008 is not effective.
  • About:
    • It is a market-based mechanism to further accelerate as well as incentivize energy efficiency in the large energy-intensive industries.
    • The Energy Savings Certificates (ESCerts) were introduced in India in 2011 under the PAT by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) under the National Mission of Energy Efficiency.
    • NMEEE is one of the eight national missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) launched by the Government of India in the year 2008.
  • Energy Savings Certificates (ESCerts):
    • This market-based mechanism is facilitated through the trading of Energy Savings Certificates (ESCerts) which are issued to those plants who have overachieved their targets.
    • The underachievers are entitled to purchase ESCerts through two power exchanges – Indian Energy Exchange (IEX) and Power Exchange India Limited (PXIL).
    • Industries that take part in this scheme are referred to as designated shoppers (DC).

YUVA Scheme 2021 – PM Scheme For Mentoring Young Authors

Ministry of Education
  • Context:
    • Government launches YUVA – Prime Minister’s Scheme For Mentoring Young Authors
  • AIM:
    • The author Mentorship programme is to train young and budding authors.
    • Young Writers will pay tribute to heroes of India’s freedom struggle to mark celebrations of India @75.
    • It is an Author Mentorship programme to train young and budding authors (below 30 years of age) in order to promote reading, writing and book culture in the country, and project India and Indian writings globally.​
    • The National Book Trust, India under the Ministry of Education as the Implementing Agency will ensure phase-wise execution of the Scheme under well-defined stages of mentorship. ​
    • The books prepared under this scheme will be published by National Book Trust, India.
    • The books will also be translated into other Indian languages ensuring the exchange of culture and literature, thereby promoting ‘Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat‘.
    • The selected young authors will interact with some of the best authors of the world; participate in literary festivals etc.

Atmanirbhar Hastshilpkar Scheme

Ministry of Development of North-East Region
  • Context:
    • Recently, the Atmanirbhar Hastshilpkar Scheme has been announced for the Artisans of the North Eastern Region under the Ministry of Development of the North Eastern Region.
  • About:
    • Financial assistance will be provided to the grass-root Artisans of the region in the form of term loans for income-generating activities for setting up / expansion/modernization/working capital requirements and other activities related to the sector.
    • During the announcement, credit assistance of Rs 1 lakh each was provided to as many as 17 artisans.
    • The credit facility is collateral-free and carries a subsidized interest rate of 6% p.a., which is repayable in 24 months.
    • For regular repayment, an incentive of 1% on the interest rate is provided, which will be refunded to the artisans on successful repayment of loans.
  • Eligibility:
    • Registered/ unregistered artisan/ Individual
    • Having valid qualifications or practising any art form
    • No existing loan from any other bank/ financial institution
    • Bank Account
  • Launched by:
    • North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd. (NEDFi).

Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF)

Union Cabinet
  • Context:
    • The Union Cabinet has approved the provisioning of mobile services in over 7,000 uncovered villages through the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF).
  • What is USOF?
    • The Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) was formed by an Act of Parliament, which was established in April 2002 under the Indian Telegraph (Amendment) Act 2003.
    • It aims to provide financial support for the provision of telecom services in commercially unviable rural and remote areas of the country.
    • It is an attached office of the Department of Telecom and is headed by the administrator, who is appointed by the central government.
  • Scope of the USOF:
    • Initially, the USOF was established with the fundamental objective of providing access to ‘basic’ telecom services to people in rural and remote areas at affordable and reasonable prices.
    • Subsequently, the scope was widened.
    • Now it aims to provide subsidy support for enabling access to all types of telecom services, including mobile services, broadband connectivity and the creation of infrastructure in rural and remote areas.
  • Funding of the USOF:
    • The resources for the implementation of USO are raised by way of collecting a Universal Service Levy (USL), which is 5 percent of the Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) of Telecom Service Providers.
  • Nature of the fund:
    • USOF is a non-lapsable Fund.
    • The Levy amount is credited to the Consolidated Fund of India.
    • The fund is made available to USOF after due appropriation by the Parliament.

O-SMART Scheme

Ministry of Earth Science
  • Context:
    • The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved the continuation of the ‘Ocean Services, Modelling, Application, Resources and Technology (O-SMART)’ Scheme for the period of 2021-26.
  • About:
    • It is a government scheme that aims at promoting ocean research and setting up early warning weather systems.
    • It was launched in August 2018.
    • It also aims at addressing ocean development activities such as technology, services, resources, science, and observations as well as offering required technological assistance for implementing aspects of the Blue Economy.
    • It comprises seven sub-schemes that are being implemented by autonomous institutes of the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).
  • Sub-Schemes are:
    • Ocean Technology, Ocean Modelling and Advisory Services (OSMAS), Ocean Observation Network (OON), Ocean Non-Living Resources, Marine Living Resources and Ecology (MLRE), Coastal Research and Operation, Maintenance of Research Vessels
  • Objectives:
    • To generate and regularly update information on Marine Living Resources and their relationship with the physical environment in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
    • To periodically monitor levels of seawater pollutants for health assessment of coastal waters of India, to develop shoreline change maps for assessment of coastal erosion due to natural and anthropogenic activities.
    • To develop a wide range of state-of-the-art ocean observation systems for the acquisition of real-time data from the seas around India and to cater to the testing and sea trial activities of ocean technology.


Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES)
  • Context:
    • The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved the continuation of the Atmosphere & Climate Research-Modelling Observing Systems & Services (ACROSS) Scheme along with its eight sub-schemes to the next finance (15th) cycle of five years (2021-2026).
  • About:
    • It pertains to the atmospheric science programs of the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) and addresses different aspects of weather and climate services.
    • Each of these aspects is incorporated as eight sub-schemes under the umbrella scheme “ACROSS”.
    • The sub-schemes are Commissioning of Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radars (DWRs), Upgradation of Forecast System, Weather & Climate Services, Atmospheric Observations Network, Numerical Modelling of Weather and Climate, Monsoon Mission III, Monsoon Convection, Clouds and Climate Change (MC4) and High-Performance Computing System (HPCS).
  • Implementation:
    • It will be implemented by the Ministry of Earth Sciences through its institutes namely India Meteorological Department (IMD), the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), National Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), and the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Service (INCOIS).
    • Each institute has a designated role for accomplishing the above tasks through the aid of eight schemes.

National Export Insurance Account (NEIA) Scheme

Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA)
  • Context:
    • The Centre has approved the contribution of Grant-in-aid (Corpus) of ₹1,650 Crore to the National Export Insurance Account (NEIA).
  • National Export Insurance Account Scheme:
    • NEIA Trust was established in 2006 to promote project exports from India that are of strategic and national importance.
    • The NEIA Trust promotes Medium and Long Term (MLT) /project exports.
    • It extends (partial/full) support to covers issued by ECGC (ECGC Ltd, formerly known as Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd.) to MLT/project export and to Exim Bank for Buyer’s Credit (BC-NEIA) tied to project exports from India.
  • Benefits offered:
    • The capital infusion in NEIA Trust will help the Indian Project Exporters (IPE) to tap the huge potential of project exports in the focus market.
    • Support to project exports with Indian content sourced from across the country will enhance the manufacturing in India.
    • In addition, assuming an average of 75% Indian content in the projects, it is estimated that around 12000 workers will move into the formal sector.
  • Performance highlights:
    • Since inception, NEIA has extended 213 covers, with a consolidated project value of Rs. 53,000 crores, to 52 countries as of 31st August 2021.
    • Its impact in enabling project exports has been most significant in Africa and South Asia.

PM Gati Shakti Scheme

Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways
  • The Gati Shakti is a national master plan aimed at the coordinated planning and execution of infrastructure projects in India to reduce logistics costs.
  • Gati Shakti is a digital platform that will bring 16 ministries and departments of the Government of India together and that includes the Railways and the Roadways also.
  • The idea is to have a coordinated execution of infrastructure connectivity projects across the country.
  • It is an Rs.100 lakh-crore project for developing ‘holistic infrastructure’.
  • The existing infrastructure schemes under various ministries will be incorporated into this plan, including Sagarmala, Bharatmala, UDAN scheme, inland waterways, etc.
  • The master plan will also cover economic zones such as pharmaceutical clusters, textile clusters, defence corridors, industrial corridors, electronic parks, fishing clusters, and agri zones.
  • It will also leverage technology extensively including spatial planning tools with ISRO imagery developed by BiSAG-N.
  • The master plan will usher in the seamless movement of goods and people all across India.
  • PM GatiShakti will provide the public and business community information regarding the upcoming connectivity projects, other business hubs, industrial areas and surrounding environment.
  • Gati Shakti raises the possibility of future economic zones as well.
  • The program has been launched as an umbrella integrator of ₹111-lakh crore worth of projects under the National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP) for 2020-25.

Krishi UDAN 2.0

Ministry of Civil Aviation
  • Context:
    • Recently, the Union Minister of Civil Aviation has released Krishi Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik (UDAN) 2.0 to facilitate the movement of agricultural produce by air.
    • It lays out the vision of improving value realization through better integration and optimization of agri-harvesting and air transportation and contributing to agri-value chain sustainability and resilience under different and dynamic conditions.
    • Earlier, ahead of UDAN Day (21st October), the Ministry of Civil Aviation flagged off 6 routes, expanding the aerial connectivity of North-East India, under the UDAN Scheme.
  • About:
    • Krishi UDAN was launched in August 2020, on international and national routes to assist farmers in transporting agricultural products so that it improves their value realisation.
    • Krishi UDAN 2.0 will focus on transporting perishable food products from the hilly areas, northeastern states and tribal areas.
    • It will be implemented at 53 airports across the country mainly focusing on the northeast and tribal regions and is likely to benefit farmers, freight forwarders and airlines.
    • Opted airports not only provide access to regional domestic markets but also connect them to international gateways of the country.

UDAN scheme

Civil Aviation Ministry 
  • Context:
    • The Civil Aviation Ministry has announced its agenda over the next 100 days. It includes:
      1. Launching 50 new routes under the UDAN scheme.
      2. Rationalising the value-added tax (VAT) charged on aviation turbine fuel (ATF).
  • About UDAN scheme (Ude Desh Ka Aam Nagrik) Scheme:
    • The scheme is aimed at enhancing connectivity to remote and regional areas of the country and making air travel affordable.
    • It is a key component of Centre’s National Civil Aviation Policy led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and launched in June 2016.
    • Under the scheme, nearly half of the seats in Udan flights are offered at subsidised fares, and the participating carriers are provided with a certain amount of viability gap funding (VGF) – an amount shared between the Centre and the concerned states.
    • The scheme will be jointly funded by the central government and state governments.
    • The scheme will run for 10 years and can be extended thereafter.
  • UDAN 4.0:
    • The 4th round of UDAN was launched in December 2019 with a special focus on North-Eastern Regions, Hilly States, and Islands.
    • The airports that had already been developed by the Airports Authority of India (AAI) are given higher priority for the award of VGF (Viability Gap Funding) under the Scheme.
    • Under UDAN 4, the operation of helicopters and seaplanes is also been incorporated.

Rashtriya Gokul Mission

Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry & Dairying
  • Context:
    • A review meeting on the performance of the Rashtriya Gokul Mission was held recently.
  • What is the Rashtriya Gokul Mission?
    • ‘Rashtriya Gokul Mission' was launched in 2014 to conserve and develop indigenous bovine breeds, under the National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development (NPBBD).
  • Key objectives of the mission:
    • Development and conservation of indigenous breeds.
    • Undertake breed improvement programme for indigenous cattle breeds so as to improve the genetic makeup and increase the stock.
    • Enhance milk production and productivity.
    • Upgrade nondescript cattle using elite indigenous breeds like Gir, Sahiwal, Rathi, Deoni, Tharparkar, Red Sindhi.
    • Distribute disease free high genetic merit bulls for natural service.
  • Implementation:
    1. It is being implemented through the “State Implementing Agency’ Livestock Development Boards, i.e., SIA’s (LDB’s).
    2. State Gauseva Ayogs are mandated to sponsor proposals to the SIA’s (LDB’s) and monitor implementation of the sponsored proposal.
    3. The “Participating Agencies” like CFSPTI, CCBFs, ICAR, Universities, Colleges, NGO’s, Cooperative Societies and Gaushalas with the best germplasm.


Ministry of Micro,Small & Medium Enterprises
  • Context:
    • Recently, the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) launched the SPIN (Strengthening the Potential of India) scheme to make potters self-sustainable.
  • SPIN Scheme:
    • About:
      • Under SPIN, KVIC will facilitate potters to get easy loans from banks that will help the potters to diversify their activities and enhance their income.
    • Objective:
      • It is aimed at sustainable development by creating local self-employment which is aligned with the Prime Minister’s commitment of “Job to Every Hand” (Har Hath Me Kaam).
    • Features:
      • It is a no-subsidy program.
      • KVIC facilitates potters to get bank loans under Pradhan Mantri Shishu Mudra Yojana.
      • No financial burden on the exchequer.
      • Beneficiaries can repay the loans in easy instalments.
    • Significance:
      • It will reduce their dependence on government subsidies and thus make potters self-reliant.

Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana

Ministry of Finance
  • It was launched by the government in 2015 for providing loans up to Rs. 10 lakh to the non-corporate, non-farm small/micro-enterprises.
  • Loans under this scheme are collateral-free loans.
  • Under this, three products have been created, i.e. 'Shishu', 'Kishore' and ‘Tarun’ as per the stage of growth and funding needs of the beneficiary micro unit.
    • Shishu: Covering loans up to Rs. 50,000.
    • Kishore: Covering loans above Rs. 50,000 and up to Rs. 5 lakh.
    • Tarun: Covering loans above Rs. 5 lakh and up to Rs. 10 lakh.

Medical Device Park

Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers
  • Context:
    • Recently, the Central Government has given in-principle approval for the establishment of a Medical Device Park in Uttar Pradesh under the 'Promotion of Medical Device Park Scheme'.
  • About:
    • According to the Uttar Pradesh government, the Medical Device Park will be set up in Gautam Budh Nagar.
    • It is noteworthy that to encourage the medical device industry in the country, the Ministry of Fertilizers and Chemicals of the Central Government has started the 'Promotion of Medical Device Park Scheme'.
    • Under this scheme, in-principle approval has been given for the construction of 4 parks in Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh.
    • Total financial assistance of Rs 400 crore will be provided under this scheme.
    • The duration of this scheme has been fixed from 2020-21 to 2024-25.


Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
  • Context:
    • The Union Minister for Power and MNRE recently reviewed the implementation of the PM-KUSUM Scheme.
    • He emphasised the importance of the PM-KUSUM scheme for farmers which provides them with a day-time reliable source of power for irrigation activities and also increasing their income.
  • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evem Utthan Mahabhiyan / (PM KUSUM) Scheme:
    • The Scheme is an initiative of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).
    • It is a scheme for farmers to the installation of solar pumps and grid-connected solar and other renewable power plants in the country.
    • Approved in February 2019, the objective of the scheme is to provide financial and water security.
    • The scheme aims to add solar and another renewable capacity of 25,750 MW by 2022.
  • Key features:
    • As per provisions of the PM-KUSUM Scheme, the grid-connected agriculture pumps can be solarised with central and state subsidies of 30% each and farmer’s contributions of 40%.
    • It will also include feeder level solarisation.
  • Scheme implementation:
    • State Nodal Agencies (SNAs) of MNRE will coordinate with States/UTs, Discoms and farmers for implementation of the scheme.
  • Scheme benefits:
    • The scheme will open a stable and continuous source of income to the rural landowners for a period of 25 years by utilisation of their dry/uncultivable land.
    • In case cultivated fields are chosen for setting up solar power projects, the farmers could continue to grow crops as the solar panels are to be set up above a minimum height.
    • The solar pumps will save the expenditure incurred on diesel for running diesel pumps and provide the farmers with a reliable source of irrigation through solar pumps apart from preventing harmful pollution from running diesel pumps.

RoDTEP scheme

Ministry of Commerce & Industry
  • Context:
    • The Centre has notified the rates and norms for the Remission of Duties and Taxes on Exported Products (RoDTEP) scheme.
    • A budgetary allocation of ₹12,454 crores has been made for 2021-22 under the scheme which covers 8,555 tariff lines, accounting for about 75% of traded items and 65% of India’s exports.
  • About the scheme:
    • The scheme was announced in 2020 as a replacement for the Merchandise Export from India Scheme (MEIS), which was not compliant with the rules of the World Trade Organisation.
    • The scheme would refund to exporters the embedded central, state and local duties or taxes that were so far not be rebated or refunded and were, therefore, placing India’s exports at a disadvantage.
  • Key features:
    1. To enable zero-rating of exports by ensuring domestic taxes are not exported, all taxes, including those levied by States and even Gram Panchayats, will be refunded under the scheme.
    2. The rebates under RoDTEP is WTO-compliant as per legal advice, ranging from 0.5% to 4.3% of the Free On-Board value of outbound consignments.
    3. The lowest rate is offered on items like chocolates, toffees and sugar confectionery, while yarns and fibres have been granted the highest rate.
    4. Steel, pharma and chemicals have not been included under the scheme because their exports have done well without incentives.

Ujjwala 2.0 scheme

Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas
  • Context:
    • The government has launched the second phase of the Ujjwala gas connection scheme for the poor.
  • About Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana:
    • Launched in May 2016.
    • Aim: To provide LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households.
    • Key features: A deposit-free LPG connection is given to the eligible household with the financial assistance of Rs 1,600 per connection by the Centre.
    • Target: The scheme gained traction with its ambit being expanded to include 80 million poor families from the earlier target of 50 million families with an additional allocation of Rs 4,800 crore.
  • Objectives of the scheme are:
    1. Empowering women and protecting their health.
    2. Reducing the serious health hazards associated with cooking based on fossil fuel.
    3. Reducing the number of deaths in India due to unclean cooking fuel.
    4. Preventing young children from a significant number of acute respiratory illnesses caused due to indoor air pollution by burning fossil fuel.
  • Eligibility criteria:
    1. Applicants must be a woman above the age of 18 and a citizen of India.
    2. Applicants should belong to a BPL (Below Poverty Line) household.
    3. No one in the applicant’s household should own an LPG connection.
    4. The household income of the family, per month, must not exceed a certain limit as defined by the government of the Union Territories and State Government.
    5. Applicants must not be a recipient of other similar schemes provided by the government.
  • Under Ujjwala 2.0:
    • Migrant workers would no longer have to struggle to get address proof documents to get the gas connections.

Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme

Ministry of Finance
  • Context:
    • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has announced the Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme 2021-22 Series VI, which will be open for subscription for the period August 30-September 3, 2021.
  • About the Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme:
    • The sovereign gold bond was introduced by the Government in 2015.
    • The government introduced these bonds to help reduce India’s over-dependence on gold imports.
    • The move was also aimed at changing the habits of Indians from saving in the physical form of gold to a 0paper form with Sovereign backing.
  • Eligibility:
    • The bonds will be restricted for sale to resident Indian entities, including individuals, HUFs, trusts, universities and charitable institutions.
  • Denomination and tenor:
    • The bonds will be denominated in multiples of gram(s) of gold with a basic unit of 1 gram. The tenor will be for a period of 8 years with an exit option from the 5th year to be exercised on the interest payment dates.
  • Minimum and Maximum limit:
    • The minimum permissible investment limit will be 1 gram of gold, while the maximum limit will be 4 kg for individuals, 4 kg for Hindu Undivided Family and 20 kg for trusts and similar entities per fiscal (April-March) notified by the government from time to time.
  • Joint Holder:
    • In the case of joint holding, the investment limit of 4 kg will be applied to the first applicant only.
  • Collateral:
    • Bonds can be used as collateral for loans. The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is to be set equal to the ordinary gold loan mandated by the Reserve Bank from time to time.

UDAN scheme

Ministry of Civil Aviation
  • Context:
    • The government has announced new flights under the UDAN scheme to connect small cities with the metros.
    • The flights utilise less-used airports in the country and seek to offer affordable flights to the people of the country.
  • Background:
    • The Centre plans to operationalise 100 unserved and underserved airports and start at least 1,000 air routes under a regional connectivity scheme called the UDAN scheme (Ude Desh Ka Aam Nagrik).
  • About UDAN Scheme:
    • The scheme is aimed at enhancing connectivity to remote and regional areas of the country and making air travel affordable.
    • It is a key component of Centre’s National Civil Aviation Policy led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and launched in June 2016.
    • Under the scheme, nearly half of the seats in Udan flights are offered at subsidised fares, and the participating carriers are provided with a certain amount of viability gap funding (VGF) – an amount shared between the Centre and the concerned states.
    • The scheme will be jointly funded by the central government and state governments.
    • The scheme will run for 10 years and can be extended thereafter.
  • UDAN 4.0:
    • The 4th round of UDAN was launched in December 2019 with a special focus on North-Eastern Regions, Hilly States, and Islands.
    • The airports that had already been developed by the Airports Authority of India (AAI) are given higher priority for the award of VGF (Viability Gap Funding) under the Scheme.
    • Under UDAN 4, the operation of helicopters and seaplanes is also been incorporated.

SMILE Scheme

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
  • Context:
    • The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has formulated this scheme for Support for Marginalized Individuals.
  • About the scheme:
    • “SMILE stands for Support for Marginalized Individuals for Livelihood and Enterprise”.
    • The focus of the scheme is on rehabilitation, provision of medical facilities, counselling, basic documentation, education, skill development, economic linkages etc.
    • It includes sub-scheme – ‘Central Sector Scheme for Comprehensive Rehabilitation of persons engaged in the act of Begging’.
    • The scheme would be implemented with the support of State/UT Governments/Local Urban Bodies, Voluntary Organizations, Community Based Organizations (CBOs), institutions and others.

Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakaram (PMJVK)

Ministry of Minority Affairs
  • Context:
    • The Ministry of Minority Affairs is implementing the Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakaram (PMJVK), in the identified Minority Concentration Areas (MCAs) of the country.
  • About the PMJVK:
    • The erstwhile Multi-sectoral Development Programme (MsDP) has been restructured and renamed Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram for effective implementation since 2018.
    • It seeks to provide better socio-economic infrastructure facilities to minority communities.
  • Special focus by earmarking funds:
    • 80% of the resources under the PMJVK would be earmarked for projects related to education, health and skill development.
    • 33 to 40% of resources under the PMJVK would be specifically allocated for women-centric projects.
  • Beneficiaries of PMJVK:
    • As far as PMJVK is concerned, the communities notified as minority communities under Section 2 (c) of the National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992 would be taken as Minority Communities.
    • At present 6 (six) communities namely Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists, Zoroastrians (Parsis) and Jains have been notified as Minority Communities.

PLI Scheme for Specialty Steel

Ministry of Steel
  • Context:
    • Union Cabinet approves Production-linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for Specialty Steel.
  • Highlights and significance of the scheme:
    • The duration of the scheme is from 2023-24 to 2027-28 (five years).
    • It aims to boost the production of high-grade speciality steel in the country.
    • There are 3 slabs of PLI incentives under the scheme. The lowest being 4% and the highest is 12%, which has been provided for electrical steel (CRGO).
    • It has a budgetary outlay of ₹6322 crores.
    • It is expected to bring in an investment of approximately ₹40,000 crores and a capacity addition of 25 MT for speciality steel.
    • The scheme is expected to give employment to about 5,25,000 people of which 68,000 will be direct employment.
  • Coverage:
    • The five categories of speciality steel that have been chosen in the PLI Scheme are Coated/Plated Steel Products, High Strength/Wear-resistant Steel, Specialty Rails, Alloy Steel Products, and Steel wires, and Electrical Steel.
  • What is Specialty Steel?
    • Speciality steel is value-added steel wherein normal finished steel is worked upon by way of coating, plating, heat treatment, etc. to convert it into high-value-added steel.
    • This steel can be used in various strategic applications like Defense, Space, Power, apart from the automobile sector, specialized capital goods among others.
  • Why was Speciality Steel chosen for the PLI Scheme?
    • It is because out of the production of 102 million tonnes of steel in India in 2020-21, only 18 million tonnes of value-added steel/speciality steel was produced in the country.
    • Apart from this, out of 6.7 million tonnes of imports in 2020-21, about 4 million tonnes import was of speciality steel alone resulting in Forex expenditure of Rs.30,000 crores.
    • Hence, by becoming Atma Nirbhar in producing speciality steel, India will move up the steel value chain and come at par with advanced steel-making countries like Korea and Japan.

Adarsh Smarak Scheme

Ministry of Culture
  • Context:
    • Monuments at Nagarjunakonda, Buddhist remains at Salihundam and Veerabhadra Temple at Lepakshi are identified as ‘Adarsh Smarak’ in Andhra Pradesh for providing additional facilities.
  • About the Adarsh Smarak scheme:
    • Launched in 2014 for providing improved visitor amenities, especially for the physically challenged.
    • Implemented by the Ministry of Culture.
    • The civic amenities are being augmented at the protected sites under the scheme.
    • Archaeological Survey of India had identified 100 monuments as “Adarsh Smarak” for upgradation.
  • Objectives of the Scheme:
    1. To make the monument visitor friendly.
    2. To provide interpretation and audio-video centers.
    3. To make the monument accessible to differently-abled people.
    4. To implement Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.

Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS)

Power Finance Corporation(PFC) Ministry of Power
  • Context:
    • A 50 kWp Solar rooftop was recently inaugurated in Solan, Himachal Pradesh under the Integrated power development scheme of the Ministry of Power, Government of India.
    • The project further reinforces the ‘Go Green’ Initiative of the government envisaged in the Urban Distribution scheme of the government of India.
  • About IPDS:
    • Power Finance Corporation(PFC) is the Nodal agency for the implementation of the scheme.
  • Launched in 2014 by the Ministry of Power with the objectives of:
    1. Strengthening of sub-transmission and distribution networks in the urban areas.
    2. Metering of distribution transformers /feeders/consumers in the urban areas.
    3. IT enablement of distribution sector and strengthening of distribution network under R-APDRP.
  • Significance of the scheme:
    • The scheme will help in reduction in AT&C losses; establishment of IT-enabled energy accounting/auditing system, improvement in billed energy based on metered consumption and improvement in collection efficiency.
  • Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (R-APDRP):
    • Launched in July 2008 with a focus on the establishment of baseline data, fixation of accountability, reduction of AT&C losses up to 15% level through strengthening & up-gradation of Sub Transmission and Distribution network and adoption of Information Technology during the XI Plan.

One Nation One Ration Card scheme

Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution
  • Context:
    • The Supreme Court has asked the West Bengal government to implement the One Nation One Ration Card scheme “immediately” to help beneficiaries, especially migrant workers, to avail of subsidised food commodities from anywhere in the country.
    • Apart from West Bengal, Assam, Chhattisgarh and Delhi are the other states yet to implement it.
  • Background:
    • The court is hearing a suo motu (registered on its own motion) case pertaining to “problems and miseries of migrant workers”.
  • About the scheme:
    • One Nation One Ration Card (RC) will ensure all beneficiaries, especially migrants can access PDS across the nation from any PDS shop of their own choice.
  • Benefits:
    • No poor person is deprived of getting subsidised foodgrains under the food security scheme when they shift from one place to another.
    • It also removes the chance of anyone holding more than one ration card to avail benefits from different states.
  • Significance:
    • This will provide freedom to the beneficiaries as they will not be tied to anyone PDS shop and reduce their dependence on shop owners and curtail instances of corruption.
  • The standard format of ‘one nation, one ration card’:
    1. For national portability, the state governments have been asked to issue the ration card in the bi-lingual format, wherein besides the local language, the other language could be Hindi or English.
    2. The states have also been told to have a 10-digit standard ration card number, wherein the first two digits will be state code and the next two digits will be running ration card numbers.
    3. Besides this, a set of another two digits will be appended with a ration card number to create unique member IDs for each member of the household in a ration card.

Haryana's “Pran Vayu Devta Pension Scheme”, and Oxy Van (Oxygen Forests)

Haryana Government
  • Context:
    • These schemes were announced by Haryana Government on the occasion of World Environment Day.
  • Pran Vayu Devta Pension Scheme (PVDPS):
    • It is an initiative to honour all those trees which are of the age of 75 years and above and have served humanity throughout their life by producing oxygen, reducing pollution, providing shade and so on.
    • Such trees will be identified throughout the state and these will be looked after by involving local people in this scheme.
    • For maintenance of trees older than 75 years, a “pension amount” of Rs 2,500 would be given per year in the name of PVDPS.
    • This ‘tree pension’ shall continue to increase every year, on lines similar to the Old Age Samman Pension Scheme in the state.
    • The pension shall be given by the Urban Local Bodies department for the upkeep of the trees, installing plates, grilles etc.
  • Oxy Van (Oxygen Forest):
    • Oxy Van has identified pieces of land, on which as many as 3 crore trees would be planted.
    • The Oxy Vans will occupy 10 per cent of the 8 lakh hectares of land across Haryana.
    • These vans will house different varieties of plants and trees.

YounTab scheme

Ladakh Government
  • Ladakh Lt Governor has launched the YounTab scheme for students in the Union Territory to encourage digital learning.
  • Under the scheme, 12,300 tablets with pre-loaded online and offline content, including textbooks, video lectures and online class applications, would be distributed to government school students from Class 6th to 12th.

YUVA: Prime Minister’s Scheme For Mentoring Young Authors

National Book Trust, India under the Ministry of Education 
  • It is a national Scheme For Mentoring Young Authors’ to encourage youngsters to harness their writing skills.
  • This scheme will ensure creating a pool of authors of below 30 years who are ready to express themselves and project India on any international platform, as well as it will help in projecting Indian culture and literature globally.

Biotech-KISAN Programme

Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology
  • It is a farmer-centric scheme for farmers, developed by and with farmers under the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology.
  • It is a pan-India program, following a hub-and-spoke model and stimulates entrepreneurship and innovation in farmers, and empowers women farmers.
  • It identifies and promotes local farm leadership in both genders. Such leadership helps to develop science-based farming besides facilitating the transfer of knowledge.

MP Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS)

Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
  • Context:
    • MPs have written to Speaker Om Birla to restart the Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS).
  • Background:
    • The Union government had resorted to Disaster Management Act to suspend the member of Parliament local area development (MPLAD) scheme in April 2020.
  • About MPLAD scheme:
    • Launched in December 1993.
    • Seeks to provide a mechanism for the Members of Parliament to recommend works of developmental nature for creation of durable community assets and for provision of basic facilities including community infrastructure, based on locally felt needs.
    • The MPLADS is a Plan Scheme fully funded by the Government of India.
    • The annual MPLADS fund entitlement per MP constituency is Rs. 5 crores.
  • Special focus:
    • MPs are to recommend every year, works costing at least 15 per cent of the MPLADS entitlement for the year for areas inhabited by Scheduled Caste population and 7.5 per cent for areas inhabited by S.T. population.
  • Release of Funds:
    • Funds are released in the form of grants-in-aid directly to the district authorities.
    • The funds released under the scheme are non-lapsable.
    • The liability of funds not released in a particular year is carried forward to the subsequent years, subject to eligibility.
    • The MPs have a recommendatory role under the scheme.
    • The district authority is empowered to examine the eligibility of works, sanction funds and select the implementing agencies, prioritise works, supervise overall execution, and monitor the scheme at the ground level.
    • At least 10% of the projects under implementation in the district are to be inspected every year by the district authority.
  • Recommendation of works:
    • The Lok Sabha Members can recommend works in their respective constituencies.
    • The elected members of the Rajya Sabha can recommend works anywhere in the state from which they are elected.
    • Nominated members of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha may select works for implementation anywhere in the country.

Scheme of Financial Assistance to States for Capital Expenditure

Ministry of Finance
  • Context:
    • The Ministry of Finance, Government of India has decided to provide an additional amount of up to ₹15,000 crores to States as an interest-free 50-year loan for spending on capital projects.
    • The Department of Expenditure has issued fresh guidelines in this regard on the “Scheme of Financial Assistance to States for Capital Expenditure” for the financial year 2021-22.
  • Allocation under the scheme:
    • The first part of the scheme is for Northeast and hill states and an amount of ₹2,600 crores has been earmarked.
    • The second part of the scheme is for all other states with an amount of ₹7,400 crores. This amount has been allocated among states in proportion to their share of central taxes as per the award of the 15th Finance Commission for 2021-22.
    • The third part of the scheme is for providing incentives to states for monetisation or recycling of infrastructure assets and disinvestment of state public sector enterprises. An amount of ₹5,000 crores is allocated.

One-Stop Centre Scheme

Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD)
  • Context:
    • The Central government will set up One Stop Centres (OSCs) across 10 missions to provide assistance to Indian women who are survivors of gender-based violence.
    • The missions where the OSCs will come up are Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, UAE, Jeddah and Riyadh in Saudi Arabia, Australia, Canada and Singapore.
  • About the scheme:
    • Popularly known as Sakhi, the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) has formulated this Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
    • It is a sub-scheme of the Umbrella Scheme for the National Mission for Empowerment of women.
  • Target group:
    • The OSC will support all women including girls below 18 years of age affected by violence, irrespective of caste, class, religion, region, sexual orientation or marital status.
  • The Centres will be integrated with a Women Helpline to facilitate access to the following services:
    1. Emergency response and rescue services.
    2. Medical assistance.
    3. Assistance to women in lodging the FIR.
    4. Psycho-social support and counselling.
    5. Legal aid and counselling.
    6. Shelter.
    7. Video conferencing facility.
  • Funds:
    • The Scheme will be funded through Nirbhaya Fund. The Central Government will provide 100% financial assistance to the State Government /UT Administrations under the Scheme.

PLI scheme for Food Processing Industry

Ministry Of Food Processing Industries
  • Context:
    • Recently, the Union Cabinet has approved the Central Sector Scheme – “Production Linked Incentive Scheme for Food Processing Industry (PLISFPI)” entailing an outlay of Rs. 10,900 crore.
  • PLI Scheme:
    • In order to boost domestic manufacturing and cut down on import bills, the central government in March 2020 introduced a PLI scheme that aims to give companies incentives on incremental sales from products manufactured in domestic units.
    • Apart from inviting foreign companies to set shop in India, the scheme also aims to encourage local companies to set up or expand existing manufacturing units.
    • PLI Scheme has also been approved for sectors such as automobiles, pharmaceuticals, IT hardware including laptops, mobile phones & telecom equipment, white goods, chemical cells, and textiles, etc.
  • Objectives of the PLISFPI:
    • To support the creation of global food manufacturing champions.
    • To strengthen select Indian brands of food products for global visibility and wider acceptance in the international markets.
    • To increase employment opportunities of off-farm jobs.
    • To ensure remunerative prices of farm produce and higher income to farmers.
  • Coverage:
    • It will support food manufacturing entities with stipulated minimum Sales and willing to make a minimum stipulated investment for expansion of processing capacity and Branding abroad.
    • The first component relates to incentivising manufacturing of four major food product segments viz. Ready to Cook/ Ready to Eat (RTC/ RTE) foods, Processed Fruits & Vegetables, Marine Products, Mozzarella Cheese.
    • It also covers organic products, free-range eggs, poultry meat, and egg products.
    • The second component relates to support for branding and marketing abroad.
  • Duration:
    • The scheme will be implemented over a six-year period from 2021-22 to 2026-27.

Large Area Certification scheme

Department of Agriculture
  • Context:
    • 14,491 ha area of UT of A&N Islands has become the first large contiguous territory to be conferred with organic certification under the ‘Large Area Certification’ scheme.
  • Benefits of LAC:
    1. As per the established norm of 
    2. About the ‘Large Area Certification’ scheme:
      • Department of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare under its flagship scheme of Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojna (PKVY) has launched this unique quick certification programme to harness these potential areas.
      • Under LAC, each village in the area is considered as one cluster/group.
      • All farmers with their farmland and livestock need to adhere to the standard requirements and on being verified get certified en-mass without the need to go under conversion period.
      • Certification is renewed on annual basis through annual verification by a process of peer appraisals as per the process of PGS-India.
    3. organic production systems, the areas having chemical input usage history are required to undergo a transition period of a minimum of 2-3 years to qualify as organic.
    4. During this period, farmers need to adopt standard organic agriculture practices and keep their farms under the certification process.
    5. On successful completion, such farms can be certified as organic after 2-3 years. The certification process also requires elaborate documentation and time-to-time verification by the certification authorities.
    6. Whereas under LAC requirements are simple and the area can be certified almost immediately.


Ministry of Rural Development & Panchayati Raj 
  • Context:
    • The scheme has been extended to all states. Earlier, it was launched only for 9 states.
  • Overview and key features of the ‘Swamitva Yojana’:
    • Launched on Panchayati Raj Diwas (April 24th, 2020).
    • The scheme seeks to map residential land ownership in the rural sector using modern technology like the use of drones.
    • The scheme aims to revolutionise property record maintenance in India.
    • The scheme is piloted by the Panchayati Raj ministry.
    • Under the scheme, residential land in villages will be measured using drones to create a non-disputable record.
    • Property cards for every property in the village will be prepared by states using accurate measurements delivered by drone mapping. These cards will be given to property owners and will be recognised by the land revenue records department.
  • Benefits of the scheme:
    • The delivery of property rights through an official document will enable villagers to access bank finance using their property as collateral.
    • The property records for a village will also be maintained at the Panchayat level, allowing for the collection of associated taxes from the owners.
    • The money generated from these local taxes will be used to build rural infrastructure and facilities.
    • Freeing the residential properties including the land of title disputes and the creation of an official record is likely to result in appreciation in the market value of the properties.
    • The accurate property records can be used for facilitating tax collection, new building, and structure plans, issuing of permits, and thwarting attempts at property grabbing.

Emergency Credit Line Guarantee Scheme (ECLGS)

Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
  • Context:
    • The government has extended the ₹3-lakh-crore emergency credit line guarantee scheme by another three months till June 30 and also widened its scope to new sectors, including hospitality, travel, and tourism.
  • Details:
    • ECLGS 3.0 would involve extending credit of up to 40% of total credit outstanding across all lending institutions as of February 29, 2020.
    • The tenor of loans granted under ECLGS 3.0 would be 6 years, including a moratorium period of 2 years.
  • About the scheme:
    • The scheme was launched as part of the Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan package announced in May 2020 to mitigate the distress caused by coronavirus-induced lockdown, by providing credit to different sectors, especially Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).
    • 100% guarantee coverage is being provided by the National Credit Guarantee Trustee Company, whereas Banks and Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs) provide loans.
    • The credit will be provided in the form of a Guaranteed Emergency Credit Line (GECL) facility.
    • No Guarantee Fee shall be charged by NCGTC from the Member Lending Institutions (MLIs) under the Scheme.
    • Interest rates under the Scheme shall be capped at 9.25% for banks and FIs, and at 14% for NBFCs.
  • Eligibility:
    • Borrowers with credit outstanding up to Rs. 50 crore as of 29th February 2020, and with an annual turnover of up to Rs. 250 crore are eligible under the Scheme.
    • On 1st August 2020, the government widened the scope of the Rs. 3 lakh crore-ECLGS scheme by doubling the upper ceiling of loans outstanding and including certain loans given to professionals like doctors, lawyers, and chartered accountants for business purposes under its ambit.
  • Benefits of the scheme:
    • The scheme is expected to provide credit to the sector at a low cost, thereby enabling MSMEs to meet their operational liabilities and restart their businesses.
    • By supporting MSMEs to continue functioning during the current unprecedented situation, the Scheme is also expected to have a positive impact on the economy and support its revival.

Stand Up India Scheme

  • Performance of the scheme:
    • Five years ago the Stand-Up India scheme was launched by the government to promote entrepreneurship among women, Scheduled Castes (SC) & Scheduled Tribes (ST).
    • So far Banks have sanctioned more than ₹25,000 crores to over 1.14 lakh accounts.
    • Women-led enterprises have dominated the sanctions so far under the scheme, which has now been extended till 2025.
  • About the Stand Up India Scheme:
    • Stand Up India Scheme was launched on 5 April 2016 to promote entrepreneurship at the grass-roots level of economic empowerment and job creation.
    • This scheme seeks to leverage the institutional credit structure to reach out to the underserved sector of people such as SCs, STs, and Women Entrepreneurs.
    • The objective of this scheme is to facilitate bank loans between Rs.10 lakh and Rs.1 crore to at least one SC or ST borrower and at least one woman borrower per bank branch for setting up a Greenfield enterprise.
    • The offices of SIDBI and NABARD shall be designated Stand-Up Connect Centres (SUCC).
  • Eligibility under Stand Up India Scheme:
    1. SC/ST and/or women entrepreneurs; above 18 years of age.
    2. Loans under the scheme are available for only the Greenfield project.
    3. The borrower should not be in default to any bank or financial institution.
    4. In the case of non-individual enterprises, at least 51% of the shareholding and controlling stake should be held by either an SC/ST or Woman entrepreneur.

Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF) Scheme

Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare
  • Context:
    • The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare signed an MoU with the Central Silk Board on a convergence model for the implementation of Agroforestry in the silk sector under the ongoing Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF) Scheme.
  • About:
    • The signing of this MoU aims to incentivize the farmers to take up sericulture-based Agroforestry models thereby contributing to the Make in India and Make for the World vision.
    • This linkage will add another dimension to agroforestry for faster returns to the growers as well as support the production of the range of silks that India is famous for.
  • About the Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF):
    • The Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare (DAC & FW) have been implementing the Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF) since 2016-17 as part of the recommendation of the National Agroforestry Policy 2014.
    • This sub-mission is under the National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
    • India was the first country to have such a comprehensive policy which was launched at the World Agroforestry Congress held in Delhi in February 2014.
    • At present, the scheme is being implemented in 20 States and 2 UTs.
    • Activities carried out under the SMAF include raising seedlings, planting on boundaries and bunds, low-density planting, high-density planting, etc.
  • Aim:
    • It aims to encourage farmers to plant multi-purpose trees together with agricultural crops for climate resilience.
    • The focus of the program is to encourage agroforestry which has tremendous potential to mitigate climate change effects through moderation of microclimate.
  • Significance:
    • It also provides benefits such as improvement of the soil profile, moisture conservation, conservation of natural resources, and creation of an additional source of livelihood and income opportunities.

Market Access Initiative (MAI) Scheme

Ministry of Commerce and Industry
  • Nodal Ministry:
    • Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce and Industry
  • Objective:
    • It is an Export Promotion Scheme. The scheme aims to act as a catalyst to promote India’s exports on a sustained basis.
  • Product and Country Focus Approach:
    • The scheme is formulated on the basis of the product and country focus approach. It will evolve specific markets and specific products through market studies/surveys.

Remission of Duties and Taxes on Export Products (RODTEP) scheme

Ministry of Finance
  • Context:
    • The notification of benefit rates payable to exporters under the Remission of Duties and Taxes on Export Products (RODTEP) scheme, is expected to take more time as it is facing ‘teething issues.
  • What are the issues?
    • Exporters fear the rates may turn out to be lower than recommended by a technical committee.
    • Inadequate remission of taxes would result in residual embedded taxes in export products and hit the Indian industry’s competitiveness in world markets at a time shipments are witnessing a nascent recovery, they warn.
    • Indian exporters are already struggling with volatility in demand from many key markets like the US and EU in the aftermath of the pandemic.
  • About the scheme:
    • The scheme was announced in 2020 as a replacement for the Merchandise Export from India Scheme (MEIS), which was not compliant with the rules of the World Trade Organisation.
    • The scheme would refund to exporters the embedded central, state, and local duties or taxes that were so far not be rebated or refunded and were, therefore, placing India’s exports at a disadvantage.
  • Significance:
    • Indian exporters will be able to meet the international standards for exports as affordable testing and certification will be made available to exporters within the country instead of relying on international organizations.
    • Also under it, tax assessment is set to become fully automatic for exporters. Businesses will get access to their refunds for GST via an automatic refund route.
    • This would increase the economy of the country and working capital for the enterprise.

Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF) Scheme

Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare
  • Context:
    • The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Central Silk Board on a convergence model for the implementation of Agroforestry in the silk sector under the ongoing Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF) Scheme.
  • Significance:
    • The signing of this MoU aims to incentivize the farmers to take up sericulture-based Agroforestry models thereby contributing to the Make in India and Make for the World vision.
    • This linkage will add another dimension to agroforestry for faster returns to the growers as well as support the production of the range of silks that India is famous for.
  • About the Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF):
    • The Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare (DAC & FW) have been implementing the Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF) since 2016-17 as part of the recommendation of the National Agroforestry Policy 2014.
    • This sub-mission is under the National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
    • India was the first country to have such a comprehensive policy which was launched at the World Agroforestry Congress held in Delhi in February 2014.
    • At present, the scheme is being implemented in 20 States and 2 UTs
  • Aim of the mission:
    • SMAF aims to encourage farmers to plant multi-purpose trees together with agriculture crops for climate resilience and an additional source of income to the farmers, as well as enhanced feedstock to inter alia wood-based and herbal industry.

Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN) scheme

Ministry of Rural Development
  • Context:
    • The Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN) scheme has been launched in 10 States this year and will be rolled out across the country by March 2022.
    • This plan has been laid out in a parliamentary standing committee report submitted to the Lok Sabha, as part of the Digital India Land Records Modernisation Programme (DILRMP) which began in 2008 and has been expanded several times.
  • About the Scheme:
    • Under the scheme, a 14-digit identification number will be issued to every plot of land in the country.
    • It is being described as “the Aadhaar for land” — a number that would uniquely identify every surveyed parcel of land and prevent land fraud, especially in rural India, where land records are outdated and disputed.
    • The identification will be based on the longitude and latitude of the land parcel and is dependent on detailed surveys and geo-referenced cadastral maps.
  • Benefits:
    • The benefits of ULPIN are multitudinous. The single source of information can authenticate the ownership and in turn, it can end the dubious ownership.
    • It will help identify the government lands easily and protect the land from shabby land transactions.

Development of Iconic Tourist Destinations Scheme

Ministry of Tourism
  • Context:
    • Tourism Ministry, in association with Madhya Pradesh Tourism and India Convention Promotion Bureau, is organizing ‘MICE (MICE – Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions) Roadshow – Meet in India’ at Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh.
  • About the Scheme:
    • It is a central sector scheme for the development of identified iconic destinations in the country following a holistic approach.
    • The objective of the scheme is to boost the tourism influx in India and serve as a model for other tourism sites.
    • The nodal agency for the scheme is the Tourism Ministry while other ministries such as civil aviation, railways, etc. are also involved.
  • About Khajuraho temples:
    • Khajuraho Temples are among the most beautiful medieval monuments in the country. These temples were built by the Chandella ruler between AD 900 and 1130.
    • They are worldwide known for their erotic sculptures. The first recorded mention of the Khajuraho temples is in the accounts of Abu Rihan al Biruni in AD 1022 and the Arab traveler Ibn Battuta in AD 1335.
    • The Khajuraho group of temples were built together but were dedicated to two religions, Hinduism and Jainism, suggesting a tradition of acceptance and respect for diverse religious views among Hindus and Jains in the region.

Orunudoi scheme

Assam Government
  • Context:
    • Launched in December 2020 by the Assam Government, Orunudoi scheme is one of the most popular schemes of the state.
  • About the Scheme:
    • Under the scheme, monthly assistance of Rs 830 is transferred to women members of marginalised families of Assam.
    • On account of being a DBT, or a Direct Benefit Transfer scheme, the money is credited directly to the bank account of the woman head of a family because they are “primary caretakers of the household”.
    • The scheme gives “a choice to the poor and needy households on how they want to spend their money”.
  • Eligibility:
    1. The applicant, a woman, has to be a permanent resident of Assam, whose composite household income should be less than Rs 2 lakh per annum.
    2. Families with specially-abled members and divorced/widowed/separated /unmarried women are prioritised. Poorer families, those without National Food Security Act (NFSA) or ration cards, are also given priority.
    3. Families without any women members, MPs, MLAs (former and current), members of Panchayati Raj institutions and urban local bodies, government officials, and employees of cooperative societies are excluded from the scheme.
    4. Families owning four-wheelers, mechanised boats, tractors or refrigerators, ACs and washing machines, or more than 15 bighas of agricultural land, are not eligible either.

Gobar-Dhan Scheme

Jal Shakti Ministry
  • Context:
    • The Jal Shakti Ministry launched a unified portal on the 'Gobardhan' scheme on February 3, 2021.
  • About:
    • The Gobardhan scheme is expected to help enhance farmers' income by converting biodegradable waste into compressed biogas (CBG).
    • The scheme is being implemented as part of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
    • The Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) comprises two main components for creating clean villages:
      • Creating open defecation free (ODF) villages
      • Managing solid and liquid waste in villages.
    • The GOBAR-DHAN scheme, with its focus on keeping villages clean, increasing the income of rural households and generating energy from cattle waste.

Mega Investment Textiles Parks (MITRA) scheme

Ministry of textiles 
  • Context:
    • Recently, the Union Finance Minister in her Budget Speech 2021-22 has announced the Mega Investment Textiles Parks (MITRA) scheme.
  • About:
    • The textiles ministry has proposed to develop seven Mega Integrated Textile Region and Apparel (MITRA) parks as part of a plan to double the industry size to $300 billion by 2025-26.
    • This will create a world-class infrastructure with plug-and-play facilities to enable create global champions in exports.
    • It would enable the textile industry to become globally competitive, attract large investments, boost employment generation and exports.
    • The parks to be set up over 1,000 acres of land.
    • Along with the Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme, MITRA will lead to increased investments and enhanced employment opportunities. Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme
    • It is a Central Sector scheme.
    • The scheme was notified in April 2020 for the Large-Scale Electronics Manufacturing.
    • This was notified with the objective of providing financial incentives for domestic manufacturing of goods. The scheme also seeks to attract large investments.
    • It was initially launched for the domestic manufacturing of Mobile Phones and Specified Electronic Components.
    • In the later phase, it was rolled out for the pharmaceutical ingredients and medical devices.
  • Incentive offered under PLI Scheme:
    • This scheme provides a 4% to 6% incentive on incremental to the eligible companies who are manufacturing goods for 5 years period.
    • The companies that are registered in India and involved in the manufacturing of goods are covered under the Target Segments of the scheme.
    • These companies are eligible for the incentives under the scheme.

One District One Product Scheme

Ministry of Commerce and Industry
  • Context:
    • The Ministry of Commerce and Industry has informed Lok Sabha about the One District One Product Scheme.
  • About:
    • To identify one product per district based on the potential and strength of a district and national priorities.
    • A cluster for that product will be developed in the district and market linkage will be provided for that.
    • This initiative is seen as a transformational step towards realizing the true potential of a district. It will fuel economic growth and generate employment and rural entrepreneurship.
  • Background:
    • ODOP is basically a Japanese business development concept, which gained prominence in 1979.
    • It is aimed at promoting a competitive and staple product from a specific area to push sales and improve the standard of living of the local population.
    • Over time, it has been replicated in other Asian countries as well.
  • Merging of ODOP with Districts as Exports Hub initiative:
    • The ODOP initiative has been operationally merged with the ‘Districts as Export Hub’ initiative. Later is implemented by the Director-General of Foreign Trade (DGFT), Department of Commerce.
  • Objective:
    • To convert each District of the country into an Export Hub by identifying products with export potential. It also aims to address bottlenecks in exporting products and support local manufacturers.
    • Under the initiative, the State Export Promotion Committee(SPEC) and District Export Promotion Committee (DEPC) have been constituted in several districts.

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana

  • Context:
    • The scheme completes five years.
  • About PMFBY:
    • Launched in 2016.
    • Merged schemes include National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) and Modified National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (MNAIS).
    • It aims to reduce the premium burden on farmers and ensure early settlement of crop assurance claim for the full insured sum.
  • Coverage:
    • The Scheme covers all Food & Oilseeds crops and Annual Commercial/Horticultural Crops for which past yield data is available and for which requisite number of Crop Cutting Experiments (CCEs) are being conducted under General Crop Estimation Survey (GCES).
  • PMFBY to PMFBY 2.0:
    • Completely Voluntary: It has been decided to make enrolment 100% voluntary for all farmers from 2020 Kharif.
    • Limit to Central Subsidy: The Cabinet has decided to cap the Centre’s premium subsidy under these schemes for premium rates up to 30% for unirrigated areas/crops and 25% for irrigated areas/crops.
    • More Flexibility to States: The government has given the flexibility to states/UTs to implement PMFBY and given them the option to select any number of additional risk covers/features like prevented sowing, localised calamity, mid-season adversity, and post-harvest losses.
    • Penalising the Pendency: In the revamped PMFBY, a provision has been incorporated wherein if states don’t release their share before March 31 for the Kharif season and September 30 for rabi, they would not be allowed to participate in the scheme in subsequent seasons.
    • Investing in ICE Activities: Insurance companies have to now spend 0.5% of the total premium collected on information, education, and communication (IEC) activities.

Ayushman Bharat: Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB PM-JAY)

Ministry of health and family welfare
  • Context:
    • The 'Ayushman CAPF' scheme was launched recently, extending the benefit of the central health insurance programme to the personnel of all armed police forces in the country.
  • Key features of the scheme:
    • Under this scheme, around 28 lakh personnel of CAPF, Assam Rifles, and National Security Guard (NSG) and their families will be covered by 'Ayushman Bharat: Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana' (AB PM-JAY)
  • Key Features of PM-JAY:
    1. The world’s largest health insurance/ assurance scheme fully financed by the government.
    2. It provides coverage of 5 lakhs per family per year, for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization across public and private empaneled hospitals in India.
    3. Coverage: Over 10.74 crore poor and vulnerable entitled families (approximately 50 crore beneficiaries) are eligible for these benefits.
    4. Provides cashless access to health care services for the beneficiary at the point of service.
  • Eligibility:
    • No restrictions on family size, age, or gender.
    • All pre–existing conditions are covered from day one.
    • Covers up to 3 days of pre-hospitalization and 15 days of post-hospitalization expenses such as diagnostics and medicines.
    • The benefits of the scheme are portable across the country.
    • Services include approximately 1,393 procedures covering all the costs related to treatment, including but not limited to drugs, supplies, diagnostic services, physician’s fees, room charges, surgeon charges, OT and ICU charges, etc.
    • Public hospitals are reimbursed for the healthcare services at par with the private hospitals.

Faceless tax scheme

Ministry of Finance
  • Context:
    • The government’s faceless tax assessment scheme has managed to deliver about 24,000 final orders since its introduction in August 2020.
  • About Faceless tax scheme:
    • In the Union Budget 2019, the Finance Minister proposed the introduction of a scheme of faceless assessment.
    • It is an attempt to remove individual tax officials’ discretion and potential harassment for income taxpayers.
    • The scheme allows for appropriate cases where a certain hearing is necessary, so then after following protocols, a hearing is given.
    • The main objective is to remove physical interaction as much as possible.

New Industrial Development Scheme for Jammu & Kashmir (J&K IDS,2021)

Ministry of Commerce & Industry
  • Context:
    • The government of India has formulated New Industrial Development Scheme for Jammu & Kashmir (J&K IDS, 2021) for the development of Industries in the UT of Jammu & Kashmir.
  • About the scheme:
    • J&K IDS, 2021 is a Central Sector Scheme. The scheme aims to take industrial development to the block level in UT of J&K, which is the first time in any Industrial Incentive Scheme of the Government of India.
    • The financial outlay of the proposed scheme is Rs.28400 crore for the scheme period 2020-21 to 2036- 37.
    • Scheme while encouraging new investment, also nurtures the existing industries in J&K by providing them working capital support at the rate of 5% for 5 years.
  • Objective:
    • The main purpose of the scheme is to generate employment which directly leads to the socio-economic development of the region.
    • • It aims at the development of Manufacturing as well as Service Sector Units in J&K.
  • Key Features of the Scheme:
    • The scheme is made attractive for both smaller and larger units.
    • It attempts for a more sustained and balanced industrial growth in the entire UT.
    • The scheme has been simplified on the lines of ease of doing business by bringing one major incentiveGST Linked Incentive- that will ensure less compliance burden without compromising on transparency.
    • It is not a reimbursement or refund of GST but gross GST is used to measure eligibility for industrial incentives to offset the disadvantages that the UT of J&K faces.


  • Context:
    • ₹1,364 crores given to wrong beneficiaries of PM-Kisan.
  • About Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi:
    • It is implemented as a central sector scheme by the Government of India.
    • This scheme was introduced to augment the source of income of many small and marginal farmers.
    • Under the Scheme, an amount of Rs.6000/- per year is transferred directly into the bank accounts of the farmers, subject to certain exclusion criteria relating to higher-income status.
    • The entire responsibility of identification of beneficiaries rests with the State / UT Governments.
  • Ambit:
    • The Scheme initially provided income support to all Small and Marginal Farmers’ families across the country, holding cultivable land up to 2 hectares. Its ambit was later expanded w.e.f. 01.06.2019 to cover all farmer families in the country irrespective of the size of their landholdings.
  • Exceptions:
    • Affluent farmers have been excluded from the scheme such as Income Taxpayers in the last assessment year, professionals like Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers, Chartered Accountants, etc and pensioners drawing at least Rs.10,000/- per month (excluding MTS/Class IV/Group D employees).
  • Similar programmes by states:
    • Bhavantar Bhugtan Yojana- MP.
    • The Rythu Bandhu scheme- Telangana.
    • Krushak Assistance for Livelihood and Income Augmentation (KALIA)- Odisha.

Soil Health Card Scheme

Ministry of Agriculture
  • Context:
    • The scheme is being implemented in 32 States and UTs.
  • About the Scheme:
    • Launched by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare on December 5, 2015.
    • Under the scheme, village-level Soil Testing Labs will be set up by youth having education in agriculture, Women Self Help Groups, FPOs etc.
    • The scheme also focuses on enabling employment generation after appropriate skill development.
  • What is the Soil Health Card (SHC)?
    • SHC is a printed report that a farmer will be handed over for each of his holdings.
    • Soil Health Card provides two sets of fertilizer recommendations for six crops including recommendations of organic manures.
    • It will contain the status of his soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely: pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Organic Carbon (OC), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Sulphur (S), Zinc (Zn), Boron (B), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu) of farm holdings.
  • Objectives of SHC:
    • An SHC is meant to give each farmer the soil nutrient status of his/her holding.
    • Advise him/her on the dosage of fertilizers and also the needed soil amendments that s/he should apply to maintain soil health in the long run.

Parivar Pehchan Patra (PPP) Scheme

Government of Haryana
  • It is Haryana's unique identity card scheme.
  • Any family with a Haryana residential address can enrol for the scheme
  • The family ID or PPP, an eight-digit alphanumeric ID, is provided to those who are residents of Haryana.
  • A registration ID is provided to those who live in Haryana but have not completed residency requirements.
  • As of now, over 110 services and schemes being delivered to citizens via the Saral platform have been linked to the PPP scheme.

Pradhan Mantri Formalisation of Micro food processing Enterprises (PMFME) Scheme

Ministry of Food Processing Industries
  • Context:
    • The Food Processing Ministry had inked an agreement with NAFED for developing 10 brands as the One District One Product brands under the Pradhan Mantri Formalisation of Micro food processing Enterprises (PMFME) Scheme.
  • About the Pradhan Mantri Formalisation of Micro food processing Enterprises (PMFME) Scheme:
    • Launched in 2020, the scheme will be implemented for five years until 2024-25.
    • It is for the Unorganized Sector on an All India basis.
  • Objectives:
    • Increase in access to finance by micro food processing units.
    • Increase in revenues of target enterprises.
    • Enhanced compliance with food quality and safety standards.
    • Strengthening capacities of support systems.
    • The transition from the unorganized sector to the formal sector.
    • Special focus on women entrepreneurs and Aspirational districts.
    • Encourage Waste to Wealth activities.
    • Focus on minor forest produce in Tribal Districts.
  • Salient features:
    • Centrally Sponsored Expenditure to be shared by Government of India and States at 60:40.
    • 2,00,000 micro-enterprises are to be assisted with credit-linked subsidies. Micro enterprises will get credit-linked subsidy at 35 per cent of the eligible project cost with a ceiling of Rs. 10 lakh.
    • The beneficiary contribution will be a minimum of 10 per cent and a balance from the loan. Seed capital will be given to SHGs (Rs. four lakh per SHG) for a loan to members for working capital and small tools.
    • Cluster approach.
    • Focus on perishables.
  • Administrative and Implementation Mechanisms:
    • The Scheme would be monitored at the Centre by an Inter-Ministerial Empowered Committee (IMEC) under the Chairmanship of Minister, FPI.
    • A State/ UT Level Committee (SLC) chaired by the Chief Secretary will monitor and sanction/ recommend proposals for expansion of micro-units and setting up of new units by the SHGs/ FPOs/ Cooperatives.
    • The States/ UTs will prepare Annual Action Plans covering various activities for implementation of the scheme, which will be approved by the Government of India.
    • A third-party evaluation and mid-term review mechanism would be built into the programme.
    • A national-level portal would be set up wherein the applicants/ individual enterprise could apply to participate in the Scheme. All the scheme activities would be undertaken on the National portal.

Rooftop solar scheme

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
  • Context:
    • The Ministry of New & Renewable Energy has allowed households to get rooftop solar panels installed by themselves or by any vendor of their choice and a photograph of the installed system for distribution utility is sufficient to avail benefits or subsidies under the Rooftop solar scheme.
    • Earlier under the rooftop solar scheme, the households were required to get that from the listed vendors only to avail the benefits and subsidy under the scheme.
  • About the scheme:
    • Implemented by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.
  • Presently under implementation is the Grid-Connected Rooftop Solar Scheme (Phase II):
    • It aims to achieve a cumulative capacity of 40,000 MW from Rooftop Solar Projects by the year 2022.
    • This scheme is being implemented in the state by distribution companies (DISCOMs).
    • Under this scheme, the Ministry is providing a 40% subsidy for the first 3 kW and 20% subsidy beyond 3 kW and up to 10 kW of solar panel capacity.
    • The residential consumer has to pay the cost of the rooftop solar plant by reducing the subsidy amount given by the Ministry as per the prescribed rate to the vendor.
  • The major objective of the programme includes:
    • To promote the grid-connected SPV rooftop and small SPV power generating plants among the residential, community, institutional, industrial and commercial establishments.
    • To mitigate the dependence on fossil fuel-based electricity generation and encourage environment-friendly Solar electricity generation.
    • To create an enabling environment for investment in the solar energy sector by the private sector, state government and individuals.
    • To create an enabling environment for the supply of solar power from rooftops and small plants to the grid.
  • Benefits of rooftop solar:
    • An alternative source of electricity to that provided by the grid.
    • It reduces the dependence on fossil-fuel generated electricity.
    • Ability to provide electricity to those areas that are not yet connected to the grid — remote locations and areas where the terrain makes it difficult to set up power stations and lay power lines.


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