Calibrating a strategy for India’s future growth – India’s Future Growth Strategy: Navigating the Changing Landscape | 11 December 2023 | UPSC Daily Editorial Analysis

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What's the article about?

  • It discusses India's economic growth prospects, challenges, and potential solutions.


  • GS3: Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment


  • India's current economic trajectory appears promising, with projected growth of 7% for 2023-24. However, the global landscape presents challenges, including deglobalization, geopolitical conflicts, and disrupted supply chains. This necessitates a reevaluation of India's future growth strategy, moving away from the export-led model of the past.


  • Economic Projections:
    • 2023-24 Growth:
      • RBI projects 7% growth.
      • IMF and World Bank project 6.3% growth.
      • 7.8% and 7.6% growth in Q1 and Q2, respectively.
    • Medium Term Growth:
      • IMF projects 6.3% annual growth up to 2028-29.
      • India needs to adapt its growth strategy due to changing global conditions.
  • Investment and Savings: Key Drivers of Growth:
    • Sustaining a 7% growth rate hinges on domestic factors, particularly strong domestic savings. While the overall savings rate remains decent, a recent decline in household savings is concerning. To address this, the government needs to encourage financial asset accumulation and reduce household debt.
    • The current investment rate needs to increase by 2% points to support 7% growth. This requires creating an environment conducive to investment, including efficient regulatory frameworks and improved infrastructure.
  • Employment: Bridging the Gap:
    • India faces a unique challenge in the coming decades: a large working-age population entering the labor market amidst increasing automation.
    • To address this, substantial investments in training and skill development are crucial.
    • Additionally, promoting non-agricultural growth and facilitating the adoption of productivity-enhancing technologies are essential for job creation.
  • Climate Change and Technological Advancements:
    • India's commitment to reducing carbon emissions necessitates a shift towards green technologies. While this may impact growth in the short term, it can be mitigated by emphasizing the growth of the relatively climate-friendly service sector.
    • Embracing technological advancements, particularly Artificial Intelligence and Generative AI, can further enhance overall growth while also contributing to climate change solutions.
  • Fiscal Responsibility: A Balancing Act:
    • Maintaining fiscal responsibility is crucial for sustainable growth. Recent slippages in achieving fiscal targets require corrective measures.
    • Balancing the revenue and expenditure accounts of the government, while also reducing debt-to-GDP ratio, is critical to provide resources for investment and social welfare programs.

Way Forward:

  • Achieving a growth rate of 7% to 7.5% requires a multifaceted approach:
    • Boosting domestic savings and investment through targeted policies and reforms.
    • Investing heavily in skill development and training to prepare the workforce for the future.
    • Developing a technology adoption strategy that balances productivity gains with job creation.
    • Prioritizing green technologies and adopting a climate-conscious approach to development.
    • Maintaining fiscal discipline to ensure resources are available for critical investments.
  • By taking these steps, India can navigate the changing global landscape and achieve its full growth potential.

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