Environment 2024 Prelims 365

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Environment Yearly Current Affairs 2024

Table of Contents

Achanakmar tiger Reserve 

  • About Achanakmar Tiger Reserve:Location: It is located in the Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh.
  • It was declared a tiger reserve in 2009.
  • It is a part of the huge Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve.
  • Maniyari River flows right from the centre of this reserve, which is the forest's lifeline.
  • It has a corridor connecting to Kanha and Bandhavgarh Tiger reserves and plays a critical role in the dispersal of tigers among these reserves..
  • Vegetation: Tropical deciduous forest.
  • Flora: Sal, bija, saja, haldu, teak, tinsa, dhawara, lendia, khamar and bamboo bloom here along with over 600 species of medicinal plants.
  • Fauna: Wild fauna includes the tiger, leopard, bison, flying squirrel, Indian giant squirrel, chinkara, wild dog, hyena, sambar, chital and over 150 species of birds

 Gangetic Dolphin:

  • It is a freshwater species and one of the few river dolphins found in the world.
  • It inhabits the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh.
  • Common Names: Blind dolphin, Ganges dolphin, Ganges susu, hihu, side-swimming dolphin, South Asian River Dolphin
  • Scientific name:Platanista gangeticaThe Gangetic Dolphin has been recognized as India's National Aquatic Animal.
  • Description: A long thin snout, rounded belly, stocky body and large flippers are characteristics of the Ganges River dolphin.
  • It feeds majorly on fishes and is are usually found in counter-current systems of the main river channel.
  • Its eyes lack lens, and as a result, this species is also referred to as the “blind dolphin”.
  • They have a highly developed bio-sonar system that facilitates them to hunt for fish even in murky waters.
  • Being a mammal, the Ganges River dolphin cannot breathe in the water and must surface every 30-120 seconds. Because of the sound it produces when breathing, the animal is popularly referred to as the 'Susu'.
  • Conservation status:
  • IUCN: Endangered
  • Wildlife (Protection) Act: Schedule-I 
  • CITES: Appendix I

 Pygmy Hog:

  • smallest and rarest species of wild pig in the world.one of the very few mammals that build its own home, or nest, complete with a ‘roof’.
  • an indicator species as its presence reflects the health of its primary habitat, tall and wet grasslands.
  • Habitat: It prefers undisturbed patches of grassland dominated by early successional riverine communities, typically comprising dense tall grass intermixed with a wide variety of herbs, shrubs and young trees.
  • Currently, the viable population of this pig in the wild is in the Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam.
  • Conservation status:
  • IUCN Red List: Critically Endangered
  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Schedule I
  • Key facts about African swine fever
  • highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild pigs, whose mortality rate can reach 100%.
  • The virus belongs to the Asfarviridae family.
  • Symptoms:Vomiting, Diarrhea, reddening or darkening of the skin, particularly ears and snout, gummed up eyes etc.
  • It can be spread through: Direct contact with infected pigs, faeces or body fluid Indirect contact via fomites such as equipment, vehicles or people who work with pigs between pig farms with ineffective biosecurity.Pigs eating infected pig meat or meat products.
  • endemic to sub-Saharan Africabut has spread to many other regions of the world, including Asia and Europe.
  • It is not known to affect human beings.
  • There is no cure or precaution availablefor the infection and no approved vaccine. 

Sukhna wildlife sanctuary-

  • located in the Chandigarh Union Territory, forms the part of Sukhna Lake catchment area falling in Shivalik hills.
  • Fauna: Sambar deer, Barking deer, and wild boar, as well as several species of birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
  • Flora: The sanctuary is characterized by a mix of forests, grasslands, and wetlands, with the Sukhna Lake forming an important part of the ecosystem.
  • Facts about Shivalik Hills- also called Siwalik Range or Outer Himalayas.Extends for more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km), has an average elevation of 3,000 to 4,000 feet (900 to 1,200 metres).
  • It rises abruptly from the plain of Indus and Ganges (Ganga) rivers (south) and parallels the main range of the Himalayas (north), from which it is separated by valleys.

Kalesr National Park 

  • About Kalesar National Park:
  • Location:  located in Yamunanagar District of Haryana., situated in the foothills of the Shiwalik ranges of the Himalayas, declared a National Park on 8th December 2003.
  • Boundaries: River Yamuna lies to its east.
  • Rajaji National Park, which is located in Uttrakhand, lies to the northeast of the park.
  • Simbalbara National Park nestled in Shivalik Hills lies to the north, sharing a border with Himachal Pradesh.
  • Morni Hills lies to the west.
  • The park was named after a temple (known as Kalesar Mahadev temple) located inside the premise of the park.
  • In earlier times, rulers under the Mughal and British Raj used the now park as hunting grounds.
  • The park is also famous for its Dak bungalows – the administrative architectural bungalows built in colonial times.
  • Flora:Most of the forest is covered by tall and dense sal trees. Other trees that are found in the forest are Semul, Bahera, Amaltas, Shisham, Khair, Sain, Chhal and Jhingan.
  • Fauna: It houses many threatened animals like leopards, Ghoral, Barking deer, Sambar, Chital, Python, King Cobra, Monitor lizard etc.

Lesser Flamingo 

  • About Lesser Flamingo:Smallest of all flamingos but has the largest population
  • It possesses the “hallux” or hind toe that some other flamingos do not have.
  • Males are a little taller than females.
  • Habitat: It inhabits coastal and inland wetlands.
  • Geographical distribution: Africa, Asia continents and in that especially Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, North Africa
  • They mostly eat blue-green algae but occasionally will take crustaceans and small insects.
  • It is serially monogamous, meaning they form pairs that remain together while they are raising the young
  • Conservation status
  • IUCN: Near Threatened
  • Key Facts about the Pulicat Lake
  • It is the second-largest brackish water lake in the country.
  • It lies at the border of the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. (Majorly lies in Andhra Pradesh)
  • The long and narrow Sriharikota Island, which separates Pulicat Lake from the Bay of Bengal,
  • It is popular as a flamingo-watching site and for water activities.
  • Both the South West and North-East monsoons provide rain to the area where Pulicat Lake is located.

Blue whole

  • About Blue Hole:It is a type of underwater sinkhole or vertical cave that is typically found in low-lying coastal karst platform regions.,are formed when limestone or other carbonate rock is dissolved by slightly acidic groundwater over a long period.
  • Features of Taam Ja Blue hole
  • around 900 feet deep and scientists have dubbed it the second-deepest blue hole found on the planet.
  • nearly circular shape at its surface with steep sides that form a large conic structure covered by biofilms, sediments, limestone, and gypsum ledges.
  • found in the central portion of Chetumal Bay, where submerged coastal karstic sinkholes locally named ‘pozas’ have been reported.
  • A series of discontinuous terraces were detected at water depths, near the eastern and north-western walls of the blue hole before developing steep and almost vertical slopes.
  • There is variation in salinity and temperature inside the blue hole
  • Key facts about Yucatan Peninsul
  • It is a Northeastern projection of Central America which is lying between the Gulf of Mexico to the west and north and the Caribbean Seato the east.
  • The peninsula is almost wholly composed of beds of coralline and porous limestone rocks.
  • What is Sinkhole? It can be formed due to natural processes or human activity.
  • It is formed in the areas of “karst” terrains, where the rock below the surface of the Earth can be easily dissolved by groundwater.
  • Karst terrain is created from the dissolution of soluble rocks, mostly limestone and dolomite and is characterised by distinctive landforms such as caves, sinkholes and springs.
  • These can also be formed due to human activity due to broken land drains, water mains and sewerage pipes, increased rainfall etc.. 

Mexican Giant Turtle: 

  • Mexican Giant Turtle, also called the Red Eared Slider, is the most destructive among the seven turtle species found in the world.
  • It is considered as one of the world’s 100 worst invasive non-native species.
  • Scientific Name: Trachemys scripta elegans
  • Distribution: They are native to the south-eastern USA and Mexico but have found their way across the globe, including India, through the trade of exotic animals.
  • Habitat: It occurs in a wide variety of aquatic habitats, but it prefers a mud bottom, plenty of aquatic plants, and abundant basking sites.
  • It lives in both natural waters (including rivers, sloughs, and oxbow lakes) and human-made waters (such as ditches, ponds, and reservoirs).
  • Features: It is known for its bright red circular or oblong spots near its ears.
  • The carapace (upper shell) is olive-brown with numerous black and yellow lines.
  • The exposed skin is dark green with narrow black and yellow lines.
  • It is primarily aquatic and will emerge from the water for basking on rocks and logs.
  • Average Life Span: 20 to 30 years.

National Green Hydrogen Mission

  • It was approved by the Union Cabinet on 4 January 2022.
  • Aim: To make India a Global Hub for the production, utilization and export of Green Hydrogen and its derivatives.
  • The mission outcomes projected by 2030 are: 
  • Development of green hydrogen production capacity of at least 5 MMT (Million Metric Tonnes) per annum with an associated renewable energy capacity addition of about 125 GW in the country;
  • Over Rs. 8 lakh crore in total investments;
  • Creation of over Six lakh jobs;
  • Cumulative reduction in fossil fuel imports over Rs. One lakh crore;
  • Abatement of nearly 50 MMT of annual greenhouse gas emissions;
  • Types of  Hydrogen based on Extraction Methods:
  • Grey Hydrogen: It is produced via coal or lignite gasification (black or brown), or via a process called steam methane reformation (SMR) of natural gas or methane (grey). These tend to be mostly carbon-intensive processes.
  • Blue Hydrogen: It is produced via natural gas or coal gasification combined with carbon capture storage (CCS) or carbon capture use (CCU) technologies to reduce carbon emissions
  • Green Hydrogen: It is produced using electrolysis of water with electricity generated by renewable energy. The carbon intensity ultimately depends on the carbon neutrality of the source of electricity (i.e., the more renewable energy there is in the electricity fuel mix, the “greener” the hydrogen produced).

Gandhi Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Location: It is situated in northwestern Madhya Pradesh, with one of its boundaries running along the border of Rajasthan.
  • The sanctuary was notified in 1974 and is spread over an area of km.
  • Landscape: A major part of the sanctuary consists of vast open landscapes with sparse vegetation and rocky terrain, with small patches of dense forests.
  • River Chambal flows through the sanctuary, dividing it into two parts.
  • Vegetation: Northern tropical dry deciduous forest, Northern tropical dry mixed deciduous forest and Dry deciduous scrub.
  • Flora: The principal tree species found here are Khair, Salai, Kardhai, Dhawda, Tendu and Palash.
  • Fauna: 
  • Herbivores like Chinkara, Nilgai and Spotted Deer, and carnivores like the Indian Leopard, Striped Hyena and Jackal are found in good numbers in the region.
  • It also has a good population of crocodiles, fish, otters and turtles. 
  • The sanctuary has many places of historical, archeological and religious importance such as Chaurasigarh, Chaturbhujnath temple, Bhadkaji rock paintings, Narsinghjhar Hinglajgarh fort, Taxakeshwar temple

Tea Mosquito bug

  • It is also known by the name Helopeltis theivora.
  • It is considered to be a serious pest of tea which damage more in most shaded areas.
  • The nymphs and adults of the Tea Mosquito Bug(TMB) suck the sap from tender leaves, buds and young shoots, which results in heavy crop losses.
  • After the formation of the PPC (Plant Protection Code) of the Tea Board of India in 2014 many pesticides were removed from the approved list of PPC to produce Indian tea safe and free from any harmful pesticides.
  • Currently, in the recent PPC version of 14, only seven pesticides are approved for use in South India.
  • Key Facts about Tea Cultivation- grown in tropical and sub-tropical climates
  • Soil: It requires deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.
  • Tea bushes require a warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year.
  • Temperature: It requires 20°-30°C for its growth.
  • Rainfall: It needs 150-300 cm annual rainfall.
  • Major tea-producing states: Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura.

World Earth Day:

  • an annual event celebrated on April 22 to raise awareness about environmental issues and promote global efforts to protect the Earth's natural resources.
  • History:
  • The first World Earth Day was held on April 22, 1970, in the United States. was organized by a group of environmental activists led by US Senator Gaylord Nelson, who was concerned about the negative impact of industrialization and pollution on the environment.
  • Since then, it has become a global movement that encourages individuals and communities to take action towards protecting our planet.
  • The Earth Day 2023 theme: ” Invest In Our Planet”, is a continuation of the 2022 theme.
  • What is Earth Hour?
  • It is a global grassroots movement uniting people to take action on environmental issues and protect the planet
  • organized by World Wildlife Fund (WWF).
  • started by WWF and partners as a symbolic lights-out event in Sydney in 2007.
  • takes place on the last Saturday of March every year.
  • “Earth Hour” encourages people to switch off all lights for an hour, from 8:30 pm to 9:30 pm local time to promote awareness of climate change challenges and energy conservation.
  • This symbolic act, known as the ‘lights off’ moment, unites people worldwide in a show of support for the planet and serves as a reminder of the environmental issues facing us.
  • Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM):
  • What is it? It is a proposed European Union (EU) tariff on carbon intensive products.
  • Purpose: To put a fair price on the carbon emitted during the production of carbon intensive goods that are entering the EU , and to encourage cleaner industrial production in non-EU countries.
  • It will ensure the carbon price of imports is equivalent to the carbon price of domestic production.
  • If implemented as planned, EU importers will have to buy carbon certificatescorresponding to the carbon price that would have been paid in the EU, if the goods had been produced locally.
  • The price of the certificates would be calculated according to the auction prices in the EU carbon credit market.
  • The amount of certificates required would be defined yearly by the quantity of goods and the embedded emissions in those goods imported into the EU.
  • Companies in countries with a domestic carbon pricing regime equivalent to the EU’s will be able to export to the EU without buying CBAM certificates.
  • CBAM will initially cover several specific products in some of the most carbon-intensive sectors at risk of “carbon leakage”: iron and steel (including some downstream products such as nuts and bolts), cement, fertilizers, aluminium, electricity and hydrogen.

 Sloth Bear:

  • Sloth bears are one of the eight bear species found across the world.
  • Scientific Name: Melursus ursinus
  • Distribution: Their range includes India, Sri Lanka and southern Nepal.90% of the global Sloth Bear population is found in India.
  • Habitat: They live in a variety of dry and moist forests and in some tall grasslands, where boulders, scattered shrubs and trees provide shelter.
  • Features:
  • They have long, shaggy dark brown or black fur and curved claws, which are the longest out of any of the bear species.
  • They use their claws to excavate termites and ants.
  • Size: They grow 5 to 6 feet (1.5 to 2 meters) long, stand 2 to 3 feet (0.5 to 1 meters) high at the shoulder, and weigh, on average, 90 to 140 kilograms.
  • They have poor senses of sight and hearing but a good sense of smell.
  • Sloth bears' nostrils can close completely, protecting the animals from dust or insects when raiding termite nests or beehives.
  • Conservation Status:
  • IUCN: Vulnerable
  • Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Schedule 1

Biomass pellets 

  • Renewable fuel made from organic materials like wood, agricultural residues, and energy crops, compressed under high pressure to remove moisture and increase energy density.
  • India mandates the use of biomass or agricultural residue alongside coal in coal-fired thermal power plants.
  • Two types of biomass pellets: Torrefied, processed at 250-350°C without oxygen, and Non-torrefied, compressed with binders like sawdust and molasses.
  • Torrefaction is a thermochemical process reducing water and volatile contents in biomass, enhancing fuel properties like energy density and hydrophobic behavior.
  • Key facts about the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB):
  • Statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, formed under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
  • Empowered by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, and provides technical services to the Ministry under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  • Functions include promoting cleanliness of streams and wells, preventing water pollution, and improving air quality by preventing, controlling, or abating air pollution nationwide.

Satkosia Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Located in Odisha on the banks of the Mahanadi River.
  • Recognized as a critical tiger habitat by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).
  • Diverse flora includes dry deciduous, moist deciduous, and tropical moist forests, with prominent Sal forests.
  • Fauna includes elephants, tigers, leopards, wild dogs, sloth bears, gaurs, sambar deer, and spotted deer.
  • Key Facts about Indian Skimmers:
  • Found in coastal estuaries of western and eastern India.
  • Primarily inhabit larger, sandy, lowland rivers, lakes, marshes, estuaries, and coasts during the non-breeding season.
  • Approximately 20% of the global population, fewer than 2,500 birds, nest along the Chambal River.
  • Conservation status: IUCN Endangered.

Mission 50K-EV4ECO:

  • SIDBI offers direct loans to SMEs for purchasing EVs and developing charging infrastructure.
  • Focuses on boosting electric two-wheelers, three-wheelers, and four-wheelers through lending support to vehicle aggregators, fleet operators, and leasing companies.
  • Key facts about SIDBI:
  • Established in 1990 under an Act of Parliament.
  • Principal Financial Institution promoting, financing, and developing the MSMEs sector.
  • Electric Vehicles (EVs):
  • Vehicles powered by electric motors, drawing electricity from batteries and chargeable externally.
  • Government of India's Electric Vehicles initiative:
  • FAME-I and II: Flagship scheme for electric mobility launched in 2015.
  • FAME-II, in its 2nd phase since April 2019, with a 10,000 Cr budget, promotes hybrid and electric vehicles.

Kudremukh Range:

  • Located in Chikmagalur district, Karnataka, in the Western Ghats.
  • Known as Horse Face Range due to resemblance of its main peak, Kudremukh Peak (1892 meters), to a horse's face.
  • Overlooks the Arabian Sea with deep valleys and sharp cliffs.
  • Kudremukh National Park, the second largest wildlife protected area in the Western Ghats, is situated here.
  • Served as a landmark for sailors on the western coast for over 2000 years.
  • Key Facts about Kudremukh National Park:
  • Spread across 600.57 sq km in Chikkamagaluru and Dakshina Kannada districts, Karnataka.
  • Dense forest with semi-evergreen and evergreen trees.
  • Home to rare flora like Nilambur Cobra Lily and South Indian Jewel Orchid, along with eucalyptus, acacia, silk oaks, and casuarinas.
  • Diverse wildlife includes leopard, Malabar giant squirrel, sloth bear, gaur, sambar, tiger, and various bird species.
  • About Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited (KIOCL):
  • Flagship Company under the Ministry of Steel, Govt. of India.
  • Established on 2 April 1976 for mining and beneficiation of low-grade iron ore at Kudremukh, Karnataka.
  • Over four decades of experience in Iron Ore Mining, Beneficiation, and Iron-Oxide Pelletisation in India.

Uhl–III Hydropower Project:

  • Located at Rana Neri Khad River in Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh.
  • Diverts tail water of Uhl Stage-II (Bassi), Neri Khad & Rana Khad.
  • Installed capacity of 99.99 MW.
  • Owned and operated by Beas Valley Power Corporation Limited.
  • Turbine and generator manufactured by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL India).
  • Key Facts about Beas Valley Power Corporation Limited:
  • Private Company incorporated on 25 March 2003.
  • Classified as a State Govt company, registered at the Registrar of Companies, Himachal Pradesh.
  • Engaged in electricity production, collection, and distribution.
  • Sea Cucumber:
  • These are part of a larger animal group called echinoderms and are invertebrates that live on the seafloor.
  • Their body shape is similar to a cucumber, but they have small tentacle-like tube feet that are used for locomotion and feeding.
  • There are about 1,250 species of sea cucumber, all of which belong to the taxonomic class Holothuroidea.
  • They are found in all marine environments throughout the world, from shallow to deep-sea environments. Sea cucumbers are benthic, meaning they live on the ocean floor.
  • They excrete inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, enhancing the productivity of benthic biota.
  • Reproduction: Sea cucumbers exhibit sexual and asexual reproduction.
  • Unlike most terrestrial animals, sea cucumber eggs undergo external fertilization—females release eggs into the water that are fertilized when they come into contact with sperm that males have released.
  • Conservation status
  • Wildlife Protection Act of 1972: Schedule I
  • CITES: Appendix II 


  • It is an infection caused by a fungus of the genus Blastomyces.
  • It is found in moist soil and decomposing wood and leaves in the mid-western, south-central and south-eastern states of the US.
  • Transmission: 
  • The microscopic spores from the fungus can get dispersed in the air and travel freely.
  • Human beings can contract blastomycosis by inhaling the spores.
  • It is not contagious between animals and people through the air.
  • The symptoms of blastomycosis in animals are similar to the symptoms in humans.
  • Symptoms: Fever, Cough, Breathing difficulty and muscle aches etc.
  • Treatment: Itraconazole is a type of antifungal medication that is typically used to treat mild to moderate blastomycosis.

Mangrove Pitta:

  • It is a species of passerine bird in the Pittidae family native to Southeast Asia and South Asia.
  • Scientific Name: Pitta megarhyncha
  • Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, and Thailand (primarily the west coast of the southern Thai peninsula).
  • Habitat:  It is found in mangrove and nipa palm forests where it feeds on crustaceans, mollusks and insects. 
  • Features: They are colourful birds which have black head with brown crown, white throat, greenish upper parts, buff under-parts and reddish vent area.
  • Conservation Status: 
  • IUCN: Near Threatened
  • What is a passerine bird?
  • A passerine or passeriform is a member of the order Passeriformes, the largest order of birds, containing more than half of all species.
  • They are also known as perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds.
  • Passerines are all terrestrial, found on all continents except Antarctica.

Garra Laishrami:

  • It is a new cyprinid fish species of the Garra genus found in the Kolab River.
  • These are characterised by the presence of a gular disc developed from tissues of the gular region that exhibit variation in the size, shape, and arrangement of the snout tubercles.
  • It is usually found under rocks, stones and boulders of torrential streams and rivers.
  • Geographical distribution: Borneo, southern China and southern Asia through Middle East Asia, Arabian Peninsula and East Africa to West Africa.
  • Key facts about Kolab River
  • It is also known as the Sabari River.
  • It is one of the main tributaries of Godavari.
  • It originates from the western slopes of Eastern Ghats in Odisha state from the Sinkaram hill ranges
  • It forms the common boundary between Chhattisgarh and Odisha states and later enters Andhra Pradesh to merge with River Godavari. 

Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Located in Raipur district, Chhattisgarh.
  • Lifeline rivers include Balmedhi, Jonk, and Mahanadi.
  • Teak, Sal, and Mixed forest are major vegetation.
  • Common fauna includes Cheetal, Sambhar, Nilgai, Wild Boar, Sloth Bear, and Wild Dog.
  • About Wild Buffalo:
  • State animal of Chhattisgarh, India.
  • Native to Indian Sub-continent and South East Asia.
  • Habitat includes alluvial grasslands, marshes, swamps, and river valleys.
  • Concentrated in North East India, including Kaziranga National Park and Dibru-Saikhowa National Park.
  • Conservation Status: IUCN Endangered, Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule 1.

Cycas pectinata:

  • Family: Cycadaceae.
  • Sole cycad species in Bhutan, evergreen and palm-like.
  • Cycads, ancient gymnosperms, originated 300-325 million years ago.
  • Gymnosperms have unfertilized seeds open to air for pollination.
  • Conservation status: IUCN Vulnerable.
  • Significance: Valuable for scientific research and conservation due to genetic information.
  • Bridges evolutionary transitions in plants.
  • Cultural and economic significance, used in religious ceremonies and as food supplement in northeast India and Bhutan.


  • Occurs due to marine planktons, like dinoflagellates, producing light when water is disturbed.
  • Common in deep sea animals.
  • Various marine creatures exhibit bioluminescence for predator evasion, prey attraction, or mating.
  • In Visakhapatnam, likely caused by an algal bloom of dinoflagellates like noctiluca and ceratium.
  • Result of luciferase enzyme reacting with luciferin compound in the presence of oxygen.
  • Widespread in lagoons and sometimes breakwaters, visible during warm weather.
  • Dinoflagellates follow a circadian cycle, visible at night in low light conditions.
  • Visible phenomenon in other Indian beaches like Havelock Island, Thiruvanmiyur Beach, Mattu Beach, and Bangaram Island.
  • Planktons:
  • Group of marine and freshwater organisms drifting along ocean currents.
  • Name derived from Greek word “planktos,” meaning “wandering.”
  • Range in size from 2 micrometers to over 20 centimeters.
  • Two types: phytoplankton (tiny plants) and zooplankton (tiny animals).

Nagarjunasagar – Srisailam Tiger Reserve:

  • Located in Nallamala hill ranges, Andhra Pradesh, spanning Guntur, Prakasam, and Kurnool districts.
  • Established as Tiger Reserve in 1983, it's the largest in India covering 5937 Sq. Km.
  • Basin cut by Krishna River.
  • Flora: Southern tropical dry mixed deciduous forest with grass, bamboo, and medicinal plants.
  • Fauna: Tiger, Leopard, Wolf, Wild Dog, Jackal, Sambar, Chital, Chowsingha, Chinkara, Mouse Deer.
  • MEE Rating:
  • Assessment of protected area management by Wildlife Institute of India.
  • Ratings: Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor.
  • Criteria adopted from IUCN's World Commission on Protected Areas.
  • Government uses MEE since 2006 to assess tiger reserves.
  • 51 out of 53 reserves covering 73,765 sq. km assessed in 5th cycle.
  • Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala tops in this cycle.

Suhelwa Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • It is located in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
  • It is one of the important places in the Bhabar-Tarai Eco-System area which is rich in biodiversity.
  • The Sohelwa Wild Life Division is situated on the Indo-Nepal International Border.
  • Flora: The main tree species are Sal, Asna, Khair, Teak etc. The Sanctuary area is very rich in medicinal plants. Some species of medicinal plants are white Musuli, Black Musuli, Piper longum, and Adhatoda vasica etc found here.
  • Fauna: Different types of mammals are found here viz. Leopard, Bear, Wolf, Hyena, Jackal, Wild Boar, Sambhar, Spotted Deer etc
  • What is the Bhabar region?
  • The Bhabar region is a narrow strip of land located in the Northern Plains of India.
  • As the rivers originating from the mountains flow down, they deposit pebbles in this region.
  • It runs parallel to the slopes of the Shiwaliks and has a width of around 8 to 16 kilometres.
  • What is Terai Region?
  • It is South of the Bhabar region where the streams and rivers re-emerge and create a wet, swampy and marshy region known as terai.

Nagarjunasagar – Srisailam Tiger Reserve:

  • Located in the Nallamala hill ranges of Andhra Pradesh, spanning Guntur, Prakasam, and Kurnool districts.
  • Designated as a Tiger Reserve in 1983, it's the largest in India covering 5937 Sq. Km.
  • Basin of the reserve is cut by the Krishna River.
  • Flora mainly consists of Southern tropical dry mixed deciduous forest with diverse grass, bamboo, and medicinal plants.
  • Fauna includes top species like Tiger, Leopard, Wolf, Wild Dog, Jackal, and others such as Sambar, Chital, Chowsingha, Chinkara, and Mouse Deer. Records 73 out of 75 big cat species in the State.
  • MEE Rating:
    • Defined as an assessment of protected area management by the Wildlife Institute of India.
    • Ratings: Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor.
    • Criteria adopted from IUCN’s World Commission on Protected Areas framework.
    • Government utilizes MEE to evaluate tiger reserves since 2006.
    • In the 5th cycle, 51 out of 53 tiger reserves covering 73,765 square kilometers have been assessed.
    • Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala secures the top rank in this cycle.

Periyar Tiger Reserve:

  • Located in the Western Ghats of Kerala.
  • Designated as a Tiger Reserve in 1978.
  • Named after the River Periyar originating within the reserve.
  • Drained by Pamba and Periyar rivers.
  • Home to tribal communities like the Mannans and Palians.
  • Terrain is hilly and undulating, reaching a maximum altitude of 2016 m.
  • Vegetation includes tropical evergreen, semi-evergreen, and moist deciduous forests.
  • Flora comprises over 171 species of grasses along with teak, mangoes, rosewood, jamun, bamboos, etc.
  • Fauna includes Elephants, Wild Pigs, Sambar, Gaur, Mouse Deer, Indian Wild Dog, and Tiger.
  • Four species of primates found: lion-tailed macaque, Nilgiri Langur, Gee's Golden Langur, Common Langur, and Bonnet Macaque.
  • Considered habitat for the elusive Nilgiri Tahr.

Highlights of the 5th cycle of the All India Tiger Estimation:

  • India's tiger population increased by 200 to reach 3,167 in 2022.
  • Tiger population: 1,411 in 2006, 1,706 in 2010, 2,226 in 2014, 2,967 in 2018, and 3,167 in 2022.
  • Tiger population nearly doubled in the last two decades.
  • Distribution: 1,161 in Central India, 824 in Western Ghats, 804 in Shivalik Range, 194 in North-eastern states, and 100 in Sunderbans.
  • Significant decline in tiger occupancy in Western Ghats.
  • Tiger occupancy also dropped in Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana.
  • North-western states like Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh have more tigers outside reserves, necessitating increased habitat conservation efforts.
  • From 2018 to 2022, 551 tiger deaths occurred, including 208 adults.

Hydrological Status and Outlook System (HydroSOS):

  • Initiative led by the Commission for Hydrology and overseen by the WMO Hydrological Assembly.
  • Aims to provide global-scale information on freshwater systems.
  • Delivered by National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) to users like government bodies and basin managers.
  • Developed in phases, with the pilot phase (2017-2021) focusing on Africa and South Asia.
  • Key Facts about World Meteorological Organisation (WMO):
    • Specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).
    • Originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO) in 1873.
    • Established in 1950 as the UN's specialized agency for meteorology, operational hydrology, and related geophysical sciences.
    • Headquarters in Geneva.
    • Membership of 187 countries.

Miyawaki Method:

  • Developed by Japanese botanist Professor Akira Miyawaki for afforestation.
  • Involves planting two to four types of indigenous trees per square meter.
  • Trees become self-sustainable and reach full length within three years.
  • Miyawaki forests grow 10x faster, 30x denser, and contain 100x more biodiversity.
  • Quick to establish, maintenance-free after initial years, can be created on small sites (3 sq m).
  • Goals include improving biodiversity, carbon sequestration, increasing green cover, lowering air pollution, and preserving water table.
  • Viable solution for cities seeking rapid climate resilience building.

Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Located near Anini district, Arunachal Pradesh, named after Dibang River.
  • Part of Eastern Himalayas with lofty mountains, snow-covered peaks, deep gorges, lush forests, and rivers.
  • Altitude ranges between 1800m and 5000m.
  • Flora includes temperate broad-leaved and conifer forests (Rhododendron, Bamboo, Gregaria, Tsuga).
  • Alpine vegetation at higher altitudes with herbs, stunted trees, and dwarf bushes.
  • Fauna includes Mishmi takin, Asiatic black bear, tigers, Gongshan muntjac, Red panda, Red goral, and Musk deer.

W12+ Blueprint:

  • It is a UNESCO platform that hosts city profiles and case studies of programs, technologies, and policies that address common water security challenges.
  • It is an informational database for solutions to urban water challenges.
  • Aim: To create a tool that provides insight into how to address common urban water challenges through easy-to-read case studies.
  • Lessons learned from the other W12+ Programs will be incorporated and highlighted within the Blueprint.
  • It will house information on best practices, encourage further knowledge exchange, and become a “virtual Hub” for urban water security solutions globally.
  • Cities listed under this blueprint from India are Chennai, Bengaluru, Mumbai and Pune.

Parambikulam Tiger Reserve:

  • It is one of the premier Tiger Reserves of India and is endowed by nature in terms of species, habitat and ecosystem diversity.
  • It is located in the Palakkad District of Kerala and lies in between the Anamalai Hills and Nelliampathy Hills of the Southern Western Ghats.
  • Flora: It supports diverse habitat types namely; evergreen forests, moist and dry deciduous forests and grasslands.
  • Fauna: Lion-tailed macaques, Malabar giant squirrel and Flying squirrel, Tarantula (large-bodied spiders) etc.
  • There are several endemic, rare, endangered and threatened (RET) species of flora and fauna adding to the diversity of the Reserve. To name a few, 
  • Coscinium fenestratum and Utleria salicifolia (the IUCN ‘red listed’ medicinal plants endemic to Anamalais)
  • Tomopterna parambikulamana (an endemic frog of Parambikulam)
  • Garra surendranathanii (an endemic sucker fish)

Prosopis chilensis:

  • The Prosopis chilensis is also known as Chilean mesquite.
  • It is a small to medium-sized legume tree that grows up to 12 m in height and 1 m in diameter.
  • It is a drought-resistant plant native to the arid regions of four South American countries namely Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru.

Eravikulam National Park:

  • It is situated in the Kannan Devan Hills of the southern Western Ghats of
  • This is also the land of “Neelakurinji”, the flower that blooms once in twelve years.
  • The Anamudi peak is situated on the southern side of the Park.
  • Flora: The major part of the park is covered with rolling grasslands, but several patches of shola forests are also found in the upper part of the valley.
  • Fauna: The Nilgiri Tahr, Gaur, Sloth Bear, Nilgiri Langur, Tiger, Leopard, Giant Squirrel and wild dog are common.
  • What is a Fern?
  • Ferns are part of the Epiphytic family. They grow naturally in a soilless condition.
  • The plants obtain water and nutrients through leaching from trees. 
  • What are Epiphytes?
  • An epiphyte is a plant that does not place roots in the ground to grow but on the surface of other plants.

Caltoris bromus sadasiva:

  • Caltoris bromus sadasiva is the first Bromus swift butterfly to be documented in the Western Ghats.
  • The species Bromus swift (Caltoris Bromus), is a skipper butterfly belonging to the Hesperiidae family of Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), from the Western Ghats and Peninsular India.
  • Caltoris is an Indo-Australian genus has over 15 species distributed across southeast Asia. 
  • Caltoris Bromus is one of them and has two other subspecies Caltoris bromus bromus and Caltoris bromus yanuca.

Capulopsyche keralensis:

  • The newly found bagworm moth species was named Capulopsyche keralensis. Capulo means coffee and psyche means moth or butterfly.
  • The name, therefore, translates as ‘Coffee moth of Kerala’ as it was found in coffee plantations.

Arctic Amplification:

  • Arctic warming 2-3 times faster than global rate due to unique features in Arctic climate system.
  • Recent study finds Arctic heating 4 times faster than rest of planet, with Eurasian Arctic, particularly Barents Sea, warming 7 times faster than global average.
  • Factors contributing to Arctic Amplification include sea ice loss, high albedo of sea ice and snow, decrease in lapse rate, and other factors like greenhouse gases, atmospheric water vapor, and cloud cover.
  • India's Steps to Minimize Impact:
  • Himadri: Research center inaugurated in 2008 in Arctic for meteorological, biological, and climate studies.
  • IndARC: India's 1st moored-underwater observatory deployed in 2014 to monitor Arctic Ocean's impact on tropical processes like monsoons.
  • Arctic Policy: Ministry of Earth Sciences launched India's Arctic Policy to better analyze, forecast, and coordinate policies on melting ice impacts in Arctic.

Zombie Ice:

  • Dead or doomed ice not receiving fresh snow, melting due to climate change.
  • Melting Greenland's Zombie Ice predicted to raise global sea levels.
  • Equilibrium state where snow replenishes glaciers' edges disrupted, leading to melting.
  • Link Between Fast-Melting Arctic Ice and Ocean Acidification:
  • Western region of Arctic Ocean experiencing rapid ocean acidification due to accelerated ice melt.
  • Ocean acidification caused by absorption of carbon dioxide from atmosphere, reducing pH of ocean water.
  • Sea-ice melt changing surface water composition, accelerating pH decrease.
  • Multidimensional Approach to Tackle Glacial Melting:
  • India's INDC commitment to achieve net zero emissions by 2070.
  • Sonam Wangchuk's artificial glacier in Ladakh for perennial water source from glaciers.


  • Movement of rock, debris, or earth down slope under gravity.
  • Causes: natural factors like earthquakes and excessive rainfall, and anthropogenic factors like infrastructure development, mining, deforestation, and unsustainable tourism.
  • About 15% of India's territory prone to landslides, primarily in Himalayas and Western Ghats.
  • Steps include National Disaster Management Authority guidelines, National Landslide Risk Management Strategy, and National Institute of Disaster Management support.
  • Himalayan Glaciers Resisting Global Warming:
  • Glaciers in Karakoram Range resisting melt due to increased snowfall from western disturbance.
  • Western disturbance primary feeder of snowfall for region.
  • Increased snowfall volume and precipitation intensity in recent decades maintaining Karakoram Anomaly.

Fly Ash:

  • Three thermal power plants in Gujarat (Torrent Power, Adani Power, Tata Power) were found dumping fly ash without permission from Gujarat Pollution Control Board.
  • Fly ash contains toxic heavy metals like nickel, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, lead, posing health risks such as heart disease, cancer, respiratory diseases, and stroke.
  • Fly Ash Notification 2021 prohibits dumping and disposal of fly ash from coal or lignite-based thermal power plants on land or into water bodies. It mandates 100% utilization of ash in an eco-friendly manner and introduces penalties for non-compliance based on the 'polluter pays' principle.
  • Initiatives to Tackle Fly Ash:
  • Official notification in 1999 outlined methods for constructive use of fly ash in manufacturing cement, concrete blocks, and bricks.
  • Launch of web portal for monitoring fly ash data and mobile app “ASHTRACK.”
  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) promotes environmentally friendly construction technologies like using fly ash bricks.
  • Fly Ash Management and Utilization Mission, directed by National Green Tribunal in 2022, aims to coordinate and monitor fly ash handling and disposal, including utilizing 1,670 million tons of legacy fly ash in the least hazardous manner, with the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change as the nodal agency.

Mission LiFE:

  • Prime Minister of India launched 'Mission LiFE' (Lifestyle For Environment) during COP26 in Glasgow in 2021 to combat climate change.
  • Aims to replace the prevalent 'use-and-dispose' economy with a circular economy and promote an environmentally conscious lifestyle.
  • Motivates individuals to adopt simple eco-friendly actions, enables industries to respond to sustainable demand, and influences government policy.
  • India's Environmental Achievements:
  • India has reduced annual per capita carbon footprint to 0.56 tons compared to the global average of 4 tons per year.
  • Distributed 36.78 crore LEDs under UJALA scheme, reducing electricity bills and environmental impact.
  • Ranks 4th in wind energy, 5th in solar energy, and 4th largest capacity for renewable energy in the world.
  • Renewable energy capacity increased by 290% in the last 7-8 years.
  • Achieved 40% electric capacity from non-fossil-fuel sources 9 years ahead of deadline and 10% ethanol blending in petrol.
  • Initiated the National Hydrogen Mission for environment-friendly energy source.
  • COP26-Glasgow Summit, 2021:
  • 26th session of Conference of Parties to UN Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Glasgow, UK.
  • Aims to limit global warming to +1.5°C and saw about 140 countries announcing target dates for net zero emissions.
  • Climate Change and Food Systems (Global Food Policy Report by IFPRI):
  • The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) released the Global Food Policy Report on climate change and food systems.


  • Also known as Sea Cows.
  • Only herbivorous marine mammals.
  • Vulnerable according to IUCN.
  • Found in shallow areas and mainly feed on seagrass.
  • Tamil Nadu announced India’s first conservation reserve for Dugongs.
  • Face threats like habitat loss and entanglement in fishing nets.

Hammerhead Sharks:

  • Can hold their breath in freezing-cold waters during deep dives.
  • Characterized by a flattened hammer-shaped head.
  • Nine species, with the great hammerhead being the largest.
  • Widely distributed in tropical and temperate marine waters.
  • Exothermic animals without internal temperature control.

Alligator Gar:

  • One of the largest freshwater fishes.
  • Fossil record dates back to over 100 million years.
  • Referred to as “living fossils” due to retained ancestral characteristics.
  • Recently discovered in Srinagar’s Dal Lake.
  • Able to adapt to a wide range of water salinities.
  • Sea Butterfly:
  • Suborder of sea snails known as shelled pteropods.
  • Holoplanktonic, spending their entire life cycle in the water column.
  • Found in all oceans, more diverse in colder waters.
  • Study conducted on their climate change impact.

Baobab Trees:

  • Also known as the upside-down tree.
  • Prehistoric species dating back over 200 million years.
  • Called “Tree of Life” for storing large amounts of water.
  • Endangered according to IUCN.
  • Madhya Pradesh applied for GI tag, while the Bhil tribe opposes uprooting for commercial use.

Gomphonema Rajaguruii:

  • New freshwater diatom species found in Maharashtra's Mahabaleshwar.
  • Named after late Professor S N Rajaguru.
  • Shows characteristics of both Gomphonema and Gomphoneis genus.

Palghat Gap:

  • Significant discontinuity in the Western Ghats, 40 km wide.
  • Connects Coimbatore with Palakkad.
  • Bharathappuzha river flows through it.
  • Divide in flora and fauna, marks a geological shear zone.

Baralacha La Pass:

  • High mountain pass in Zanskar range.
  • Connects Leh district in Ladakh and Lahaul district in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Close to River Bhaga, a tributary of River Chenab.

Niti Pass:

  • Connects Uttarakhand and southern Tibet.
  • Ancient trade route between India and Tibet.

Pakkamalai Hills:

  • Biodiversity-rich area in Tamil Nadu's Eastern Ghats.
  • Habitat for large mammals including leopards and sloth bears.

Dal Lake:

  • Located in Srinagar, surrounded by Pir Panjal mountains.
  • Integral to tourism in Kashmir, second-largest lake in Jammu & Kashmir.

Coco Islands:

  • Part of Yangon Region of Myanmar, in the Bay of Bengal.
  • Geological extension of Arakan Mountains, submerges as a chain of islands.
  • Part of the same topography as India's Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

Cyclone Mocha:

  • Tropical cyclone formed over the southern Bay of Bengal.
  • Named after Yemen's Red Sea port city known for introducing coffee.

Meitei Community:

  • Predominant ethnic group of Manipur State, also known as Manipuri people.
  • Speak Meitei language, settled primarily in the Imphal Valley region.
  • Found in other Indian states and neighboring countries.
  • Divided into clans, known for rice cultivation 
  • ice cultivation on irrigated land.


  • Ethnic group from Northeast India, parts of Myanmar, and Bangladesh.
  • Consists of multiple tribes.
  • Present in all Northeast Indian states except Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Around fifty Kuki tribes in India are recognized as scheduled tribes.
  • Kindred tribes include Chin people of Myanmar and Mizo people of Mizoram.

Khasi People:

  • Indigenous ethnic group of Meghalaya, also found in Assam and parts of Bangladesh.
  • Inhabit eastern Meghalaya in Khasi and Jaintia Hills.
  • Divided into several clans, with a matrilineal society.
  • Majority population in eastern Meghalaya, around 48% of the state's population.
  • Traditional male dress is “Jymphong” or a long sleeveless coat without collar.

Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Located in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Only sanctuary in the state housing Asian elephants.
  • Characterized by high hills and deep valleys.
  • River Kaigal and River Kaundinya flow through the sanctuary.

Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Located in Andhra Pradesh, under the state Forest Department since 1970.
  • Considerably hilly with steep slopes.
  • Recent sighting of Barkudia limbless skink reported, believed to be endemic to the region.

Bhimgad Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Located in the Western Ghats, Karnataka.
  • Shares boundaries with several other sanctuaries.
  • Headwaters of rivers like Tillari, Malaprabha, and Mhadei.
  • Vegetation includes tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests.

Biligiri Ranganathaswamy Temple (BRT) Tiger Reserve:

  • Located in Karnataka.
  • Bio-geographical habitat between Western and Eastern Ghats.
  • Major forest types include Southern Tropical Evergreen, Semi-evergreen, and Moist deciduous forests.

Bannerghatta National Park:

  • Located in Karnataka, part of it is a biological reserve known as Bannerghatta Biological Park.
  • India's first butterfly enclosure inaugurated in 2006.
  • Suvarnamukhi stream runs through the park, providing water for animals.
  • Vegetation includes Dry Deciduous Scrub, Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous, and Moist Mixed Forests.
  • REWARD Program:
  • World Bank-assisted watershed development program.
  • Implemented from 2021 to 2026.
  • Aims to strengthen capacities of national and state institutions for improved watershed management.
  • Focuses on increasing farmers' resilience and supporting value chains in selected watersheds.
  • Implemented in partnership with the Department of Land Resources in the Ministry of Rural Development, and in Karnataka and Odisha.

Global Greenhouse Gas Watch (GGGW):

  • New greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring initiative by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO).
  • Builds on WMO's experience in coordinating international collaboration for weather prediction and climate analysis.
  • Part of the Global Atmosphere Watch, established in 1989.
  • Adopts a top-down approach to flux evaluation using existing capabilities in surface- and space-based observations and modeling.
  • Aims to ensure timely exchange of all observations and data for effective monitoring.


  • Ozone (O3) in the upper atmosphere shields Earth from harmful radiation, while ground-level ozone (tropospheric ozone) is a pollutant.
  • Ground-level ozone forms from the reaction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in sunlight and stagnant air.
  • The Dobson unit measures ozone concentration, with one unit representing the molecules needed to create a layer 0.01 mm thick at specific conditions.
  • The Ozone Depleting Gas Index (ODGI-A) tracks the decline in halogen abundance relative to 1980 levels, caused by substances like CFCs and HCFCs.
  • Scientists discovered a significant all-season ozone hole over the tropics, caused by chemicals like CFCs and halons.
  • Initiatives like the Vienna Convention, Montreal Protocol, and Kigali Agreement aim to protect the ozone layer by phasing out harmful chemicals.
  • World Ozone Day, celebrated on September 16, commemorates the signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987.
  • The Ozone Recovery Assessment Report, 2022, indicates that the ozone layer is on track to recover within decades due to the phase-out of harmful chemicals

Homo Naledi:

  • Previously unknown extinct hominin species discovered in South Africa's Rising Star Cave system in 2013.
  • Largest collection of a single hominin species found in Africa.
  • Lived in South Africa around 335,000 – 236,000 years ago, near early ancestors of modern humans.

Duck-billed Dinosaur:

  • Herbivorous dinosaur species newly discovered in the southern hemisphere.
  • Slender dinosaurs with bipedal and quadrupedal posture, common during the Cretaceous period.
  • Cretaceous Period lasted from 145.0 million years ago to 66 million years ago.

Pink Bollworm:

  • Highly destructive pest of cotton, originally from India and now found worldwide.
  • Scientific name: Pectinophora gossypiella.

Depsang Plains and Demchok:

  • Disputed areas between India and China in Eastern Ladakh.
  • Friction points between the two countries despite disengagement efforts in other regions post Galwan clash of 2020.

Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH):

  • Includes the Himalayas across multiple countries.
  • IMD collaborating with meteorological agencies in China, Pakistan, etc., for climate forecast services.
  • Third Pole region, recently mentioned in the 'Water, Ice, Society, and Ecosystems (WISE)' report by ICIMOD.

Myristica Swamps:

  • Freshwater swamp forests mainly in the Western Ghats states of India.
  • Harbors endemic and endangered plant species with medicinal properties.
  • Remnants of forest vegetation with Myristica species having stilt roots/knee roots.

Gira Waterfall:

  • Seasonal waterfall in Gujarat, India, in the Western Ghats.
  • 75 ft fall from Kapri Tributary into Ambika River, a major westward flowing river in
  • Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Mettur Dam:

  • Located in Tamil Nadu over the Cauvery River.
  • Provides irrigation to parts of Salem, Erode, Namakkal, Karur, Tiruchirappali, and Thanjavur districts.

Anamalai Tiger Reserve:

  • Situated in Tamil Nadu, south of the Palakkad gap in the Southern Western Ghats.
  • Surrounded by Parambikulum Tiger Reserve, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, and Eravikulum National Park.
  • Declared a Tiger reserve in 2007.
  • Winner of the Wildlife category in the Siena Drone Photo Awards 2023.

Kalasa Banduri Project:

  • Located on Mahadayi River in Karnataka.
  • Involves building dams across Kalasa and Banduri tributaries to divert water to the Malaprabha river.

Amrabad Tiger Reserve:

  • Located in Nallamala hills of Telangana.
  • India’s second-largest tiger reserve.
  • Presence of the Chenchu tribe.
  • Contains ruins of Nagarjuna Viswa Vidyalayam.
  • Declared as a sanctuary in 1983 and later as Amrabad Tiger Reserve.
  • Spans Amarabad, Achampet, and Nagarjuna Sagar forest divisions.

Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Located in Madhya Pradesh, parallel to the northern side of the Narmada River.
  • Kolar River forms its western boundary.
  • Houses Bhimbetika, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Nauradehi and Durgavati Wildlife Sanctuaries:

  • Set to become Madhya Pradesh's 7th tiger reserve.
  • Largest wildlife sanctuary in the state.
  • Classified under the Deccan peninsula biogeographic region.
  • Majority of the sanctuary falls in the Yamuna basin, with a portion in the Narmada basin.

River Cities Alliance DHARA:

  • Organized by NMCG and NIUA in Pune.
  • Platform for Indian river cities to discuss sustainable urban river management.
  • Started with 30 cities in 2021; now has 95 members nationwide.
  • Partnership between Ministry of Jal Shakti and Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

Depsang Bulge

  • It is a 900 square kilometre area of mountain terrain in the disputed Aksai Chin region.
  •  It was conceded to India by China in 1960 but remains under Chinese occupation since the 1962 Sino-Indian War.
  •  The area is immediately to the south of Depsang Plains and encloses the basin of the Burtsa Nala. It also provides land access to Central Asia through Karakoram Pass.

World's 1st Bamboo Crash Barrier:

  • Developed under Aatmanirbhar Bharat initiative.
  • Installed on Vani-Warora Highway in Maharashtra's Vidarbha.
  • Prevents vehicles from veering off highways.
  • Named “Bahu Balli” and spans 200m.
  • Rigorously tested at NATRAX and CBRI, rated Class 1 for fire resistance.
  • Accredited by Indian Road Congress.
  • About Bambusa Balcoa:
  • Also known as Female Bamboo.
  • Grown in Northeast India and West Bengal.
  • Commonly used in construction, bridges, fishing floats, baskets, etc.
  • Treated with creosote oil and coated with recycled HDPE for crash barrier.

Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Located in Thane District, Maharashtra, at Western Ghats foothills.
  • Named after Tansa River dividing it.
  • Vegetation: Southern Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest.
  • Flora: Includes Kalamb, Bibla, Khair, Hed, Teak, Bamboo.
  • Fauna: 54 animal species, 200 bird species.
  • Key species: Panther, Barking deer, Mouse deer, Hyena, Wild boar, Gyps vultures, Pallas’s Fish-Eagle.

National Chambal Sanctuary:

  • Also known as National Chambal Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Established in 1979 along Chambal River.
  • Aims to protect Indian Gharials.
  • Spans Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan.
  • Designated Important Bird Area and proposed Ramsar site.

Sunabeda Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Proposed tiger reserve in Nuapada, Odisha, near Chhattisgarh.
  • Adjacent to Sitanadi and Udanti sanctuaries.
  • Diverse habitats: plateau, canyons, 11 waterfalls.
  • Jonk River's catchment area with an irrigation dam.
  • Indra nullah and Udanti River south of the sanctuary.

Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (KWS):

  • Part of Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, Uttar Pradesh.
  • Strategic link between Indian and Nepalese tiger habitats.
  • Flora: Sal and Teak forests, grasslands, wetlands.
  • Fauna: Endangered species like gharial, tiger, rhino, Gangetic dolphin, Swamp deer, Hispid hare, Bengal florican, White-backed and Long-billed vultures.

Committee to Oversee Transfer and Import of Captive Wild Animals in India:

  • Jurisdiction expanded from regional to national level.
  • Now responsible for all wild animals in need of rehabilitation or rescue across India.
  • Authorized to consider requests and grievances regarding wild animal welfare from rescue centers or zoos nationwide.
  • Central and State authorities mandated to report seizure or release of captive wild animals to the committee.
  • Composition of High-Powered Committee:
  • Chaired by former judge Justice Deepak Verma.
  • Includes Director General of Forests, Head of Project Elephant Division, Member Secretary of Central Zoo Authority, and co-opted State Chief Wildlife Wardens.
  • Mandate and Functions:
  • Consider disputes and approvals related to transfer or import of wild animals.
  • Recommend ownership transfer of captive or seized wild animals to rescue centers or zoos for welfare.
  • Conduct fact-finding exercises in pending or future complaints.

Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols Mission (MAIA):

  • Collaborative project between NASA and Italian Space Agency ASI.
  • Set to launch by the end of 2024.
  • Focuses on societal health, involving epidemiologists and public health researchers.
  • Utilizes state-of-the-art satellite instrument to examine health effects of air pollution.
  • Includes PLATiNO-2 satellite provided by ASI and science instrument built at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
  • 3-year mission targeting 11 primary areas: Los Angeles, Atlanta, Boston, Rome, Addis Ababa, Barcelona, Beijing, Johannesburg, New Delhi, Taipei, and Tel Aviv.
  • Measures sunlight reflection to determine abundance, size, and optical properties of pollutants in the atmosphere.

Green Tug Transition Programme:

  • Initiative announced by the Union Minister of Ports, Shipping & Waterways (MoPSW) and Ayush.
  • Aims to convert all tugboats in major ports into Green Hybrid Tugs by 2025.
  • Green Hybrid Tugs will utilize non-fossil fuel solutions like Methanol, Ammonia, and Hydrogen.
  • National Centre of Excellence in Green Port & Shipping (NCoEGPS) will oversee the programme.
  • India targets to become a Global Hub for Green Ship building by 2030.

Aravalli Green Wall Project:

  • Unveiled by the Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change on International Day of Forests.
  • Part of the National Action Plan to Combat Desertification and Land Degradation.
  • Aims to create green corridors by afforesting the 5 km buffer zone around the Aravalli Hill Range.
  • Involves planting native species of trees and shrubs, restoring water bodies, and promoting agroforestry and pasture development.
  • Inspired by Africa's 'Great Green Wall' project initiated in 2007.

Forest Certification in India:

  • Forest Certification verifies the origin, legality, and sustainability of forest-based products through a multi-layer audit system.
  • Independent third-party organizations conduct the certification to ensure compliance with environmental, social, and economic standards.
  • The certification aims to prevent the consumption of products derived from deforestation or illegal logging.
  • Currently, forests in only one state, Uttar Pradesh, are certified.
  • Standards are developed by the New Delhi-based non-profit Network for Certification and Conservation of Forests (NCCF).

Galathea Bay:

  • Located on Great Nicobar Island, part of the Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve.
  • Included in Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ)-I for maximum protection.
  • Home to the indigenous Shompen community.
  • Prime nesting habitat for the Nicobar Megapode bird species.
  • In January 2021, the Standing Committee of the National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) declassified the entire Galathea Bay Wildlife Sanctuary to allow for port development.


  • Mangrove Initiative for Shoreline Habitats & Tangible Incomes.
  • Aims to establish mangrove plantations along India's coastline and salt-pan lands.
  • Operates through convergence of MGNREGS, Campa Fund, and other sources.
  • Intensive afforestation of coastal mangrove forests is a key objective.
  • India joined the “Mangrove Alliance for Climate” during UNFCCC COP27.


  • Prime Minister Programme for Restoration, Awareness, Nourishment, and Amelioration of Mother Earth.
  • Incentivizes states and union territories promoting alternative fertilizers and balanced use of chemical fertilizers.
  • Aims to reduce the government's subsidy burden, estimated at Rs 2.25 lakh crore in 2022-23.

Amrit Dharohar:

  • Implemented over the next 3 years to promote optimal use of wetlands.
  • Enhances biodiversity, carbon stock, eco-tourism opportunities, and income generation for local communities.
  • Emphasizes the importance of wetland preservation with an inclusive approach involving local communities as ecosystem caretakers.

Green Urban Oases Programme:

  • Launched in 2021 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.
  • Contributes to the FAO Green Cities initiative launched in 2020.
  • Aims to enhance the resilience of dryland cities by addressing climate, health, food, and economic challenges.
  • Supports dryland urban communities in strengthening policy and technical capacity for integrated urban forestry and greening strategies.

30X30 Targets:

  • Aims to protect and conserve 30% of the world's terrestrial, freshwater, coastal, and marine ecosystems.
  • Asian countries may not meet the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Goals proposed under the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework.
  • More than 100 countries, including India, aspire to halt species loss and protect vital ecosystems for economic security.

Dobson Unit (DU):

  • Common unit for measuring ozone concentration.
  • One Dobson Unit represents the amount of ozone required to create a layer 0.01 millimeters thick at 1 atmosphere pressure and 0 degrees Celsius.

Ocean Wave Energy Converter – Sindhuja – I:

  • Developed by IIT Madras for generating electricity from sea waves.
  • Consists of a floating buoy, spar, and electrical module utilizing relative motion for electricity generation.
  • Harnesses tidal, wave, and ocean thermal energy to meet India's energy needs and climate-change goals.

Indo-Pacific Parks Partnership (I3P):

  • Aims to promote sustainability in the Indo-Pacific region through protected areas and natural park development.
  • Key components include biodiversity conservation, sustainable tourism, and governance reinforcement.

Yaya Tso Lake:

  • Declared Ladakh's first biodiversity heritage site under the Biological Diversity Act.
  • Resolved by the Biodiversity Management Committee and the SECURE Himalaya Project.
  • Yaya Tso Lake now holds the status of a biodiversity heritage site.
  • Lake Yaya Tso is situated in Ladakh, known for its stunning beauty, at an elevation of 4,820 meters.
  • Renowned as a haven for birds, it serves as a nesting ground for various species including the bar-headed goose, black-necked crane, and brahminy duck.
  • It stands out as one of India's highest breeding sites for the black-necked crane.

Secure Himalaya Project (2017):

  • The Secure Himalaya project, initiated in 2017, is funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
  • Its primary objective is to support the government's conservation efforts focused on the snow leopard and its habitat.
  • The project adopts a landscape-based approach to address critical issues such as habitat degradation, livelihood threats, and illegal wildlife trade in Himalayan ecosystems.

Agasthyarkoodam in Thiruvananthapuram:

  • Agasthyarkoodam hosts the historic Agasthiyar observatory, one of the few magnetic observatories globally during the 19th century.
  • It is the second highest peak in Kerala and forms a part of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve, spanning across Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  • Designated as a UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves site since 2001.
  • The name “Agasthyarkoodam” is derived from the revered sage Agasthya, known for his contributions to Tamil Siddha Ayurveda.

World Wetlands Day:

  • Observed annually on February 2 to commemorate the signing of the Ramsar Convention in 1971.
  • India, a party to the Convention since 1982, has declared 75 wetlands as Ramsar sites across 23 states and Union Territories.
  • Tamil Nadu has the highest number of Ramsar sites (14), followed by Uttar Pradesh with 10.
  • The 2023 theme focuses on Wetland Restoration.

Vanikaran Project:

  • Launched by the Forest department and Noolpuzha grama panchayat.
  • Executed on 30 hectares of forest land in the Sulthan Bathery forest range of the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Aims to eradicate invasive plants, especially Senna spectabilis, and restore natural forests.

Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Second largest wildlife sanctuary in Kerala after Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Integral part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
  • Surrounded by protected areas of Mudumalai in Tamil Nadu, Nagarhole, and Bandipur in Karnataka.
  • About one third of the sanctuary is covered by plantations of teak, rosewood, eucalyptus, and silver oak.


  • Diverse genus of about 1,000 species of woody flowering plants.
  • Native to temperate regions of Asia, North America, and Europe, as well as tropical regions of southeast Asia and northern Australia.
  • Require slightly acidic soil and exhibit a wide range of size and shape.
  • National flower of Nepal and state tree of Uttarakhand, known locally as “Lali Guras.”


  • Arboreal primates found in tropical rainforests.
  • Three species: Bornean, Sumatran, and Tapanuli.
  • Feed on wild fruits like lychees and figs.
  • Relatively low reproductive rate, with females giving birth once every 5-10 years.
  • Conservation status: Critically Endangered.


  • Animals considered problem or nuisance, classified under Schedule V of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
  • The Wildlife Institute of India is developing immuno-contraceptive measures for their population management.
  •  coloration.

Asiatic Black Bear:

  • Omnivorous bear with the Himalayan Black Bear subspecies found in India.
  • Range stretches from south-eastern Iran to Myanmar, across the Himalayan foothills.
  • Conservation status: Vulnerable (IUCN Red List), Appendix I (CITES), Schedule II (Wild Life Protection Act 1972).

International Big Cats Alliance (IBCA):

  • Launched by the Prime Minister of India to commemorate 50 years of Project Tiger (1973).
  • A proposed global alliance aiming to protect and conserve the seven major big cats: tiger, lion, leopard, snow leopard, puma, jaguar, and cheetah.
  • Membership open to 97 range countries and other interested nations, international organizations, etc.
  • Expected to sustain itself through contributions from the private sector, multilateral institutions, bilateral institutions, and membership fees.
  • 5th Cycle of All-India Tiger Estimation:
  • Summary report released by the Prime Minister of India.
  • Tiger population in India increased by 200 from 2018 to 2022.
  • Growth rate slowed to 6.7% in the last four years compared to around 33% during 2014-2018.
  • Nearly doubled the number of tigers in the last two decades.
  • Distribution: 1,161 tigers in Central India, 824 in the Western Ghats, 804 in the Shivalik Range, 194 in the North-eastern states, and 100 in the Sunderbans.
  • Decline in tiger occupancy observed in the Western Ghats, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana states.
  • Tiger Census in India:
  • After the Sariska Tiger Reserve incident in 2005, where tigers became locally extinct despite official records indicating their presence, the Tiger Task Force (TTF) was appointed by the Prime Minister to develop a conservation strategy.
  • The TTF recommended the creation of the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) and suggested country-wide monitoring of tigers and their ecosystems.
  • NTCA, in collaboration with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII), conducts a national assessment of tiger populations and their habitats every four years.
  • The assessment uses camera-trapping and the Spatially Explicit Capture-Recapture (SECR) method to estimate tiger abundance.
  • MEE Rating of Nagarjunasagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve:
  • The 5th cycle of Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) conducted by the Centre upgraded the MEE rating of Nagarjunasagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve from good to very good.
  • MEE evaluates how well protected areas are managed and assigns ratings in categories like Very Good, Good, Fair, and Poor.
  • Adopted from IUCN's framework, MEE has been used by the government since 2006 to assess tiger reserves nationwide.
  • MEE is increasingly utilized by governments and international bodies to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of protected area management systems.

30 Years of Project Elephant:

  • – The President of India inaugurates Gaj Utsav at Kaziranga National Park in Assam to celebrate the 30th anniversary of Project Elephant (PE).
  • Status of Elephants in India:
  • – India harbors the largest and most stable population of Asian elephants, accounting for over 60% of all wild Asian elephants.
  • – Karnataka leads with 6,049 elephants, followed by Assam (5,719) and Kerala (3,054) based on the 2017 Elephant Census.
  • – The Asian Elephant is categorized as Endangered in the IUCN Red List and under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • Conservation Strategies for Elephants:
  • India has around 33 elephant reserves, with the first one being the Singhbhum Elephant Reserve in Jharkhand.
  • -The elephant was declared as India's national heritage animal in 2010.
  • The Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE) program began in South Asia in 2003.
  • The National Elephant Conservation Authority (NTCA) is being established following recommendations from the Elephant Task Force (ETF).
  • -The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), in partnership with the Wildlife Trust of India (WTI), has launched the Hathi Mere Sathi campaign.
  • -The ETF has proposed the campaign to “Take Gajah (the elephant) to the Prajah (the people)” to raise public awareness.

Heat Strokes:

  • Eleven fatalities reported in Mumbai due to heatstroke.
  • About Heat Stroke (Sunstroke or Hyperthermia):
  • Result of body overheating due to high temperatures and humidity, or prolonged physical exertion in heat.
  • A medical emergency needing prompt attention.
  • Reasons for Heat Strokes:
  • Body unable to cool itself in extreme heat, leading to core temperature rising above 98.6°F.
  • Heat-Related Illnesses:
  • Heat cramps (mildest), heat exhaustion, and heat stroke (most serious).
  • Stages of Heat-Related Illnesses:
  • Stage 1: Heat cramps – Severe muscle spasms due to salt and water loss.
  • Stage 2: Heat exhaustion – Core temperature rises to 101-104°F, symptoms include headache, fever, nausea, weakness, muscle ache, reduced urine output.
  • Stage 3: Heat stroke – Medical emergency, core temperature reaches 104°F or higher, symptoms include confusion, agitation, fainting, lack of sweat, dizziness, organ failure, convulsions.

First Ever Census on Water Bodies in India:

  • Ministry of Jal Shakti releases the inaugural Census of Water Bodies.
  • Key Highlights:
  • Launched under the centrally sponsored scheme, “Irrigation Census,” in convergence with the 6th Minor Irrigation Census.
  • Aims to create a comprehensive national database of all water bodies, including natural and manmade ones like ponds, tanks, and lakes.
  • Covers water bodies in both rural and urban areas, assessing their use for irrigation, industry, pisciculture, domestic purposes, etc.
  • Exclusions from the Census:
  • Seven specific types of water bodies excluded, including oceans, rivers, swimming pools, and temporary bodies created by activities like mining.
  • Out of 24.24 lakh water bodies, 97.1% are in rural areas and 2.9% in urban areas.
  • 78% are man-made, while 22% are natural; 1.6% reported encroached.
  • Ownership and Distribution:
  • 55.2% of water bodies owned by private entities, with Panchayats holding the most public-owned bodies.
  • Sikkim has the lowest number of water bodies at 134.


  • Underwater mountains rising hundreds or thousands of feet from the seafloor but not reaching the surface.
  • Typically extinct volcanoes, conical or dome-shaped, formed through volcanic activity near mid-ocean ridges.
  • Significant for marine life, providing habitats for various species including fish, corals, and unique endemic organisms.

Coastal Aquaculture Authority:

  • Established under the Coastal Aquaculture Authority Act, 2005, it regulates coastal aquaculture activities to ensure sustainable development without harming the coastal environment.
  • Chaired by a serving or retired High Court Judge appointed by the Central Government.

SAFE Initiative:

  • Launched by the United Nations in 2021, coordinated by UNODC, aims to prevent future pandemics by addressing the link between wildlife trafficking and zoonotic disease transmission.
  • Initially focusing on four Asian countries: China, Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos.

ASTM Certification:

  • Process ensuring products or materials meet relevant ASTM standards for quality, safety, and reliability.
  • Developed and published by ASTM International, a global organization for technical standards across various industries and sectors.

Meri LiFE Mobile Application Launch:

  • The Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change (MoEFCC) introduced the Meri LiFE mobile application to engage youth and promote their involvement in addressing climate change.
  • Inspired by Mission LiFE:
  • The app is inspired by Mission LiFE (Lifestyle for Environment), a global initiative by India to combat climate change.
  • Mission LiFE was unveiled during the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow in 2021.
  • MoEFCC is responsible for executing Mission LiFE nationally.
  • Objectives of Mission LiFE:
  • Mobilize one billion Indians and global citizens to undertake individual and collective actions for environmental preservation from 2022 to 2027.
  • Aim for at least 80% of all villages and urban local bodies in India to adopt eco-friendly practices by 2028.
  • Three-Pronged Strategy:
  • Phase I: Change in Demand:
  • Encourage individuals worldwide to adopt simple yet impactful eco-friendly actions in their daily lives.
  • Phase II: Change in Supply:
  • Anticipate that significant changes in individual demand will influence industries and markets to adapt their supply and procurement strategies accordingly.
  • Phase III: Change in Policy:
  • By influencing demand and supply dynamics, trigger shifts in industrial and governmental policies towards supporting sustainable consumption and production.
  • Nudging Individuals for Environmentally-Friendly Practices:
  • The overall aim is to encourage widespread adoption of sustainable and healthy lifestyles, leading to positive environmental impacts through individual actions, industry responses, and policy changes.

Blue Ocean Event 

  • It refers to a situation in which the Arctic Ocean becomes ice-free during the summer, with the sea ice area dropping below 1 million square kilometres.
  • This means that the Arctic Ocean is ice-free, and the surface colour changes from white (sea ice) to blue (ocean). It signifies the absence of sea ice at the top of the world and is considered a significant and alarming consequence of climate change.
  • It represents a critical tipping point in the Arctic system, as more sea ice melts, it reduces the amount of sunlight reflected into space, leading to further warming and ice loss.

Global Environment Facility (GEF):

  • Established in 1991 preceding the Rio Earth Summit (1992), GEF is a multilateral financial institution aimed at addressing global environmental challenges.
  • Objectives and Activities:
  • Provides grants and financial support to initiatives promoting sustainable development, biodiversity conservation, and climate change mitigation and adaptation.
  • Uniquely engages governments, civil society organizations, and the private sector in collaborative efforts towards common environmental objectives.
  • Governance Structure:
  • Governed by a council comprising representatives from 183 member countries who decide on funding allocation and policy directions.
  • Financial Mechanism for Conventions:
  • Acts as the “financial mechanism” for five international conventions:
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
  • Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
  • UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
  • Minamata Convention on Mercury
  • Principle of “Incrementality”:
  • Operates based on the principle of “incrementality,” wherein its funding surpasses what would have been achieved without GEF's support.
  • Impact and Reach:
  • Has financed over 4,000 projects across more than 170 countries, totaling investments exceeding $20 billion.
  • Recent Decision:
  • At the 64th GEF council meeting in Brazil, the governing body sanctioned the allocation of $1.4 billion to expedite actions addressing climate change, biodiversity conservation, and pollution crises.

Climate Polycrisis

  • Refers to the interconnected and compounding crises stemming from climate change, impacting various sectors and domains globally.
  • Components of Climate Polycrisis:
  • Encompasses both physical impacts like rising temperatures, sea-level rise, and extreme weather events, as well as the social, economic, and political challenges emerging from these impacts.
  • Factors Contributing to Climate Polycrisis:
  • Causes include deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity loss, overconsumption, waste, and various anthropogenic factors.
  • Effects of Climate Polycrisis:
  • Results in global warming, extreme weather events such as droughts and floods, sea-level rise, and disruptions to food webs and ecosystems.
  • Mitigation Strategies:
  • Involves actions like reforestation, sustainable agriculture practices, transitioning to renewable energy sources, and conservation of biodiversity.

Climate Tipping Points 

  • Climate Tipping Points are critical thresholds or conditions in the Earth's climate system that, if crossed, could lead to significant and irreversible changes.
  •  Climate tipping points have the potential to disrupt ecosystems, weather patterns, and the livelihoods of communities worldwide.
  • Examples of Climate Tipping Points 
  • Arctic Sea Ice: The rapid loss of Arctic Sea ice due to warming temperatures could have far-reaching consequences for the climate system.
  • Amazon Rainforest: Deforestation and changing climate patterns could push the Amazon rainforest toward a tipping point, resulting in a shift from a lush ecosystem to a savanna.
  • Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC): Changes in the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean can impact weather patterns and sea-level rise.

Hydroclimate Extremes

  • Hydroclimate extremes refer to unusual and intense climatic events related to the Earth's water cycle, encompassing both the atmospheric and hydrological components.
  •  These extremes can manifest an exceptionally heavy rainfall, prolonged droughts, intense storms, floods, or other weather-related phenomena.
  • Key Findings of Study 
  • Frequency of extreme rainfall is expected to increase over the Western Ghats & Northeast River basins, while heavy rainfall intensity is projected to increase over Upper Ganga & Indus basins.
  • There will be an agricultural drought in the lower Ganga basin due to a decline in mean rainfall.
  • In the mid-future, under certain carbon emission scenarios, a significant increasing change of about 30% precipitation per day was likely over the West flowing River (Kutch & Saurashtra), including Luni, Indus, and Upper Ganga River Basins.

Alliance for Transformative Action on Climate and Health (ATACH) 

  • WHO introduced an Operational Framework for constructing climate-resilient and low-carbon health systems through ATACH.
  • ATACH is a voluntary network (established in 2022) where participants can share information, exchange views, and improve technical and political cooperation.
  • Its goal is to achieve the climate change and health ambitions set at COP26. This includes building sustainable and climate-resilient health systems.
  •  It uses the collective power of WHO Member States and other stakeholders to drive this agenda forward.
  • ATACH is not a distinct legal entity. It derives its legal status from WHO, which also provides its Secretariat.

Breakthrough Agenda Report 2023 

  • Released jointly by the International Energy Agency, International Renewable Energy Agency, and UN Climate Change High-Level Champions, this annual progress report was requested at the UN Climate Change Conference COP26 2021, aligning with the Breakthrough Agenda's launch.
  • The Breakthrough Agenda focuses on coordinating investments across five key sectors: Power, Road transport, Steel, Hydrogen, and Agriculture.
  • Key Findings
    • The transition to clean and sustainable energy solutions is gaining momentum. 
    • National contributions are not in sync with global climate objectives.
    • The power sector contributes to 23% of total emissions, marking a 10% increase since 2010.

National Carbon Registry 

  • The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has developed an open-source software called the National Carbon Registry, which enables countries to manage national data and processes for trading carbon credits.
  • Accredited as a digital public good (DPG), the registry uses open-source code, allowing countries to adapt and reuse its modules, software, and technical documentation.
  •  This could potentially reduce production costs and implementation timelines. The registry follows best practices from organizations like UNDP, the World Bank, UNFCCC, and EBRD.
  • About United Nations Development Programme 
  • The United Nations' lead agency on international development works in 170 countries to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality.
  • It aids countries in developing policies, leadership skills, and institutional capabilities to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, focusing on sustainable development, democratic governance, peacebuilding, and climate and disaster resilience.
  • People’s Biodiversity Register (PBR)

National Campaign Launch:

  • The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change initiated the National Campaign for Updation and Verification of People’s Biodiversity Register (PBR) in Goa.
  • Purpose and Design:
    • Designed as a tool for formally documenting local knowledge with proper validation.
    • Functions as a comprehensive record of biodiversity, including habitat conservation, preservation of various plant and animal varieties, and domesticated breeds.
  • Legal Basis:
  • Defined in the Biological Diversity Act, 2002.
  • Progress:
  • Biodiversity Management Committees in different states have prepared 2,67,608 PBRs to date.
  • Kolkata was the first major metropolitan city in the country to develop a detailed PBR.
  • Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs)
  • Role and Composition:
  • BMCs, established under the Biological Diversity Act 2002, ensure conservation, sustainable use, and equitable benefit-sharing from biodiversity.
  • Comprise a chairperson and up to six members nominated by the local body, including a mandated percentage of women and representatives from Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes.

Ocean Census

  • Initiative Launch:
  • The Nippon Foundation and the Nekton Foundation introduced the Ocean Census initiative.
  • Aims to discover 100,000 new marine species within a decade by conducting expeditions in marine biodiversity hotspots and employing advanced technologies like high-resolution imagery, DNA sequencing, and machine learning.
  • Objective and Scope:
  • Addresses the gap in marine biodiversity knowledge, with scientists estimating that only about 10% of marine species have been formally described.

Central Asian Flyway (CAF)

  • Conservation Efforts:
  • The Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change organized a meeting of Range Countries to enhance conservation efforts for migratory birds and their habitats in the Central Asian Flyway (CAF).
  • Geographical Extent:
  • Spans from the Arctic tundra in Russia and Siberia to the Indian Ocean, encompassing diverse habitats such as wetlands, grasslands, deserts, and high-altitude areas.
  • Migration Patterns:
  • Millions of birds migrate along the CAF annually, traversing long distances to breed or find suitable feeding grounds.

Diversity For Restoration (D4R) Tool 

  • Researchers at Biodiversity International have developed a tool called Diversity for Restoration (D4R), a decision support tool that helps in species selection and seed sourcing for restoration using local site conditions and user-determined restoration objectives.
  •  It contains information on 100 plant functional traits of 237 important native trees of Western Ghats which have socio-economic significance.
  • Aim: To help better decision-making and bring the best outcome for those plantation programs. Features
  • The tool aids users in identifying species that align with restoration objectives, resist local stresses, and adapt to changing environmental conditions.
  • It helps pinpoint seed procurement areas and determines tree species' commercial benefits, including timber, fruit, and manure.
  • It also assesses tree resilience to physiological stresses like extreme temperatures and soil salinity or acidity.
  • Significance 
  • It will help improve the effectiveness of restoration programmes by providing manifold benefits to interested stakeholders while promoting sustainable development along with improving socio-ecological perspectives.

Operation “Kachchhap

  • Operation “Kachchhap,” led by the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI), achieved notable success in the recovery of 955 live baby turtles.
  •  These included various species such as the Indian Tent Turtle, Indian Flapshell Turtle, Crown River Turtle, Black Spotted/Pond Turtle, and Brown Roofed Turtle.
  • The DRI functions as India's premier anti-smuggling agency, operating under the Central Board of Indirect Taxes & Customs within the Ministry of Finance


  • India has been a participant in the Review of Significant Trade (RST) process for Red Sanders since 2004, and has been removed from the process. About Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 
  • It is a global legally binding agreement (administered by UNEP) among governments to regulate or ban international trade in species under threat.
  • It came into force in 1975. India joined CITES in 1976 and hosted CITES CoP-3rd in 1981. What is CITES RST? 
  • The CITES RST process enables disciplinary action in the form of trade suspensions directed at countries that do not meet their obligations.
  • The Red Sanders species has been listed for the RST process more or less since 2004.
  • This is a process through which the CITES Standing Committee places increased scrutiny on the exports of a species from a country to determine if the Convention is being properly implemented.

Ghol Fish

  • State Fish Declaration:
  • Gujarat recently designated the black-spotted croaker (Protonibea Diacanthus), locally known as the Ghol fish, as the state fish.
  • Characteristics:
  • IUCN Status: Near Threatened.
  • Distribution:
  • Found in the Indo-Pacific region from the Persian Gulf to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Commercial Importance:
  • Highly valued in Gujarat, with prices ranging from Rs 5,000 to Rs 15,000 per kilogram.
  • Its meat is exported to European and Middle-Eastern countries, while its air bladder, known for medicinal purposes, is mainly exported to China, Hong Kong, and other Asian countries.
  • Health Benefits:
  • Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids, supporting heart health and brain function.
  • Excellent source of high-quality protein, crucial for tissue repair and growth.
  • Contains essential vitamins and minerals like vitamin D, vitamin B12, iodine, selenium, and zinc, contributing to bone health and immune function.

PET 46 Enzyme

  • Discovery:
  • Researchers identified the PET46 enzyme in a deep-sea microorganism for the first time.
  • Characteristics:
  • PET46 enzyme uniquely degrades both long-chain and short-chain PET molecules, facilitating continuous degradation.
  • Significance:
  • Valuable in combating plastic pollution by breaking down PET plastic into terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol.
  • Enhances understanding of the ecological role of deep-sea archaea.
  • Other PET-Degrading Enzymes:
  • Include PETase, MHETase, and THC_Cut1.

Status of Tiger Report

  • Released by NTCA:
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) recently published the report “Status of Tigers, Co-predators, and Prey in India-2022,” offering insights into the current status of tigers in India.
  • Key Observations:
  • Land Area: Tiger reserves, encompassing 53 reserves, account for 2.3% of India's total land area.
  • Population: India is currently home to nearly 75% of the world's wild tiger population.
  • Population Increase: Notable increases in tiger populations are observed in Central India, the Shivalik Hills, and the Gangetic Plains.
  • Conservation Challenges: Around 35% of tiger reserves require urgent enhancement of protection measures, including tiger reintroduction, highlighting the need for strengthened conservation efforts.
  • Techniques Used:
  • M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers-Intensive Protection and Ecological Status): Utilizes the Global Positioning System and remote sensing for comprehensive field information collection.
  • Camera Trap-based Capture-Mark-Recapture: Established method for abundance and density estimation of tigers, particularly in areas where camera trapping is feasible.
  • Molecular Tools: Employed in areas where camera trapping was not possible, molecular tools were utilized to determine the presence of tigers by extracting DNA from scats.


  • A holobiont is a collection of species that are closely associated and have complex interactions. The term comes from the Greek words holos, meaning “all”, and bios, meaning “life”.
  • A holobiont is made up of: o Host: A multicellular organism, such as a plant or animal o Microbiota: The microorganisms that are closely associated with the host, like bacteria
  • Animals and plants are no longer considered standalone entities; instead, they are recognized as biomolecular networks i.e. “holobionts.”
  • Each species in a holobiont is called a biont. The combined genome of all the bionts is called the hologenome. 
  • Some examples of holobionts include: o A plant and its microbiome o Coral heads, which get their colors from photosynthetic protists called zooxanthellae o Kombucha, which is fermented by a consortium of bacteria and yeasts

Methanol Diesel-15 (MD15) Fuel

  • Development Collaboration:
  • Indian Railways' technical advisor, Research Design and Standards Organisation (RDSO), collaborated with the Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOCL) to develop Methanol Diesel-15 (MD15) fuel.
  • Composition:
  • MD15 is a blended fuel comprising 15% methanol, 71% mineral diesel, and 14% indigenously developed additives by IOCL.
  • Properties:
  • Methanol: A versatile and non-polluting fuel capable of fully or partially replacing petrol, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
  • Mineral Diesel: Commonly used as fuel in locomotives.
  • Benefits of MD-15:
  • MD15 can reduce pollution by 33% when blended with petrol, and over 80% when used as a replacement for diesel, potentially saving Indian Railways approximately Rs 2,280 crore annually.
  • Methanol & Methanol Economy:
  • Methanol serves as a clean and efficient fuel alternative for transportation, cooking, and various sectors.
  • It finds applications in railways, marine sectors, generators, and power generation.
  • The methanol economy serves as a transition towards hydrogen-based fuel systems, burning efficiently in all internal combustion engines and emitting minimal SOX and NOX emissions.
  • Methanol can be produced from natural gas, Indian high-ash coal, biomass, municipal solid waste (MSW), and flared gases.

White Hydrogen 

  • White hydrogen is a naturally occurring, geological hydrogen found in underground deposits (Earth's crust) and created through fracking.
  • It's also known as “natural,” “gold,” or “geologic” hydrogen.
  • White hydrogen is created through fracking and found in underground deposits. There are no strategies to exploit this hydrogen at present.
  • Features of White Hydrogen (Abundant and Untapped Source Of Clean-Burning Energy) 
  • White hydrogen’s estimated cost is around $1 per kilogram, significantly lower than green hydrogen, which costs about $6 per kilogram, making it a more affordable clean energy source.
  • Their deposits have been identified worldwide including in the US, eastern Europe, Russia, Australia, Oman, France, and Mali.

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