GS 3 Mains 2020: Important Data and Key Findings of Reports to Quote in Mains Answers

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Economic development
  1. Size of the economy:
    1. India's economy is the fifth-largest in the world overtaking the UK and France in 2019 to take the fifth spot.
    2. The Indian economy in 2019 was at around $2.7 trillion.
    3. To achieve the level of $5 trillion, we need to grow continuously at 9% for six years from now. 
    4. In purchasing power parity (PPP) terms, India's GDP (PPP) is USD 10.51 trillion, exceeding that of Japan and Germany. 
    5. India’s economy is already the third-largest in the world in PPP terms, even if way behind that of the U.S. and China.
    6. It is estimated to surpass the USA to become the second-largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) by 2040.
    7. India is expected to be the third-largest consumer economy as its consumption may triple to US$ 4 trillion by 2025, owing to the shift in consumer behavior and expenditure pattern.
  2. Union Budget 2020-21:
    1. Targets:
      • The nominal GDP growth rate of 10%
      • 6% real GDP growth target.
      • 4% inflation target.
    2. Total revenue–₹24.23 trillion.
    3. Total expenditure-₹30.42 trillion.
    4. The largest source of deficit financing is market borrowings. (more than 5 lakh crore).
    5. The composition of government expenditure reveals that expenditure on defense, salaries, pensions, interest payments, and subsidies account for more than 60 % of total expenditure.
  3. Fiscal deficit targets:
    1. Budget 2020: FD target raised to 3.8% from 3.3% for FY19-20 due to revenue shortfall; banks on escape clause to overcome the FRBM Act.
    2. Central Govt Debt will be reduced to 40% of GDP by 2024-25.
    3. States’ gross fiscal deficit (GFD) has remained within the FRBM threshold of 3% of GDP during 2017-18 and 2018-19. 
    4. Central Govt. Debt plus State Govt. Debt will be reduced to 60% of GDP by 2024-25.
  4. GDP:
    1. GDP growth slowed to 4.2% in 2019-20.
    2. India's GDP is expected to reach US$ 5 trillion by FY25 and achieve upper-middle income status on the back of digitization, globalization, favorable demographics, and reforms. 
    3. Since Independence, there have been multiple instances when the growth rate in India was negative:
      • 1957-58  -1.21
      • 1965-66 -3.65
      • 1972-73 -0.32
      • 1979-80 -5.20
    4. However, after 1979-80, India has not had a single year of negative GDP growth.
    5. As per the National Statistical Office, the GDP has declined by 23.9 percent in the first quarter of 2020, the worst ever in 40 years. 
    6. The decline in 2020-21 caused by the pandemic can be addressed only if the Indian economy grows at 8% in 2021-22.
  5. Banking:
    1. Recapitalization bonds worth ₹2.60-lakh-crore were issued to banks in tranches between January 2018 and March 2020.
    2. As of March 2020, the gross non-performing assets of the banking sector stood at 8.5% of total advances.
    3. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI), in its bi-monthly monetary, kept the benchmark lending rate(repo rate) unchanged at 4%.
    4. The reverse repo rate will remain at 3.35%.
  6. Inflation:
    1. The government has mandated the central bank to keep retail inflation within the range of 4 percent with a margin of 2 percent on either side.
    2. The inflation Rate in India averaged 5.98 percent from 2012 until 2019
  7. Exports and imports:
    1. India’s overall exports (Merchandise and Services combined) in 2019-20 are estimated to be USD 528.45billion, exhibiting a negative growth of (-) 1.36per cent over the same period last year.
    2. Overall imports in 2019-20 are estimated to be USD 598.61billion, exhibiting a negative growth of (-)6.33per cent over the same period last year.
    3. India is the world's largest rice exporter with over 25% share in global markets.
    4. Agri exports – 60billion $ by 2022.
    5. India is the world’s 3rd-largest importer of crude oil and the fourth largest importer of LNG.
    6. Total agricultural export basket accounts for a little over 2% of the world agricultural trade.
    7. India is among the 15 leading exporters of agricultural products in the world.
  8. FDI/FPI:
    1. India received its highest ever FDI investment in the financial year 2018-19.
    2. FDI has not increased consistently.
    3. Singapore replaced Mauritius as the top source of FDI.
  9. Investment:
    1. Gross fixed capital formation of the private sector, a measure of aggregate investment, declined to 28.6% of GDP in 2017-18 from 31.3% in 2013-14 (Economic Survey 2018-19).
  10. Disinvestment:
    1. The target for 2020-21 at Rs 1.20 lakh crore
  11. Taxes:
    1. 15 million people pay income tax out of a population of more than 1.35 billion. (2018-19)
    2. As per Union budget 2020-21, Rs 8.02 lakh crore of “amounts under dispute” relate to direct taxes.
    3. In September 2019, India’s statutory corporate tax rate was reduced to 22%, lower than the global average of 23.79%.
    4. Direct taxes(54%)> indirect taxes
    5. Corporation tax> income tax
    6. Non-tax revenue is about 1.5% of GDP.
  12. GST
    1. Gross revenues from the Goods and Services Tax (GST) crossed the ₹1 lakh crore mark for the second month in a row, with ₹1,04,963 crore collected in November 2020. 
    2. The Centre’s compensation formula to states from the GST also promised to meet an annual revenue shortfall below 14%. 
    3. For 2018-19, the Centre gave Rs 81,141 crore to states as GST compensation.
    4. However, for the year 2019-20, the compensation requirement of states nearly doubled to Rs 1.65 lakh crore
  13. International:
    1. India improved its ranking in World Bank's Doing Business Report by 14 spots over last year and was ranked 63 among 190 countries in the 2020 edition of the report.
    2. India is expected to have 100,000 start-ups by 2025, which will create employment for 3.25 million people.
    3. India’s SDR quota is 2.76% and China’s is 6.41%, while the U.S.’s quota is 17.46 % (translates to a vote share of 16.52%) giving it unique veto power over crucial decisions at the IMF, many of which require a supermajority of 85%.
    4. India was the largest borrower from the World Bank for six of the last 10 years.
    5. As of November 2018, the largest recipients of world bank loans were 
      • India ($ 859 million in 2018) and 
      • China($ 370 million in 2018), through loans from IBRD
  14. Human capital:
    1. India has 6.5 mean years of schooling.
    2. Malnutrition levels persist across states and have worsened in some — the under-five mortality rate is over 50 (per 1,000 births) in many states.
    3. 1.5 percent of GDP for health
    4. 3.1 percent of GDP for education
    5. India is the country with
      • The largest number of children who are stunted at 46.6 million (third (31%) of the global burden for stunting)
      • Most number of wasted children at 25.5 million
      • More than a million children are overweight.
    6. Malnutrition costs India at least $10 billion annually in terms of lost productivity, illness, and death and is seriously retarding improvements in human development and further reduction of childhood mortality.
    7. State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) report:
      1. India retains the dubious distinction of being the country with the largest population of food-insecure people.
      2. The prevalence of food insecurity increased by 3.8 percentage points in India between 2014 and 2019.
      3. By 2019, 6.2 crores more people were living with food insecurity than the number in 2014.
      4. India accounted for 22% of the global burden of food insecurity, the highest for any country, in 2017-19. 
  15. Atmanirbhar package:
    • In the middle of May, the government unveiled a ₹20 lakh-crore stimulus and support package for the economy, branding it Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.
    • Major announcements included:
      • Setting up of a Rs 1 lakh crore agriculture infrastructure fund for farm-gate infrastructure
      • Rs 10,000 crore scheme for the formalization of micro food enterprises.
      • To plug critical gaps in the fisheries value chain, a Rs 20,000 crore fund has been allocated through Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana—
        • Rs 11,000 cr for activities in Marine, Inland fisheries and Aquaculture and 
        • Rs 9,000 crore for the infrastructure of fishing harbors, cold chains, and markets.
  16. Unemployment:
    1. As per the PLFS(NSO) 2017-18, 6.1% of India’s labor force are unemployed.
    2. The employment rate has fallen from 42.7% in 2016-17 to 39.4% in 2019-20.
    3. According to ILO-modelled rates, the world average employment rate is 57%. India is placed by the same source at 47%.
    4. Only 3.8% of India’s total workforce is employed in the public sector.
    5. During 2004-05 through 2011-12, the absolute number of workers fell in agriculture for the first time in India’s history.
    6. According to the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) survey, 12.2 crore people have lost their jobs during the lockdown in April.
  17. Women employment:
    1. According to India, Voluntary National Review 2020, the female labor force participation rate for the 15-59 age group is showing a declining trend and stands at 25.3%. This is one of the lowest rates in the world.
    2. Meanwhile, the International Monetary Fund estimates that equal participation of women in the workforce will increase India’s GDP by 27%.
    3. Comprising more than 50% of the agricultural labor force, and nearly 14% of all entrepreneurs, women’s relationship with the environment and the informal economy can be a useful lever of action to transform the lives and livelihoods of their families and communities.
  18. Inequality:
    1. India's richest 1% hold 4 times more wealth than 70% of the poor.
Manufacturing sector
  1. Contribution to GDP:
    1. The manufacturing sector contributes to 16 % of India's GDP in 2019.
  2. Make in India:
    1. The three major objectives were:
      • To increase the manufacturing sector’s growth rate to 12-14% per annum to increase the sector’s share in the economy;
      • To create 100 million additional manufacturing jobs in the economy by 2022; and
      • To ensure that the manufacturing sector’s contribution to GDP is increased to 25% by 2022 (revised to 2025). 
  3. Handloom:
    1. There are nearly 31 lakh Handloom Households as per the 4th Handloom Census (2019-2020).
  4. IIP:
    1. India’s Index of Industrial Production (IIP) for 2019-20 stood at 129.2.
    2. 8 core industries comprise 40.27% weight in the Index of Industrial Production (IIP).
  5. MSME:
    1. 6 Crore MSME in the country.
    2. 45% of the country’s total manufacturing output, 
    3. 40% of exports,  
    4. 30% of GDP
    5. Employs an estimated 11 crore persons.
Service sector
  1. Service sector:
    1. India's service sector is the fast-growing sector in the world accounting for 60 percent of the economy and 28 per of employment.
    2. E-commerce phenomenal growth over years- from $39 billion in 2017, it is projected to rise to $200 billion by 2026.
    3. India is a net importer of recreational services that include services in film, music industry, and so on.
    4. 55% of the total size of the economy and GVA growth, 
    5. 2/3rd of total FDI inflows into India and 
    6. About 38 percent of total exports.
    7. According to WTO data, India’s share in the world’s commercial services exports has risen steadily over the past decade to reach 3.5 percent in 2018, twice the share in the world’s merchandise exports at 1.7 percent.
    8. India now ranks 8th among the world’s largest commercial services exporters.
  1. Agricultural growth:
    1. Agricultural growth has stagnated around 2% during the last decade.
    2. Doubling farmers’ income by 2022-23 compared to 2015-16 requires a growth rate of 10%.
  2. People dependent on agriculture:
    1. Approx. 16cr Indian workers are in agriculture & allied sectors at present. (2019-20)
    2. The number of people employed in agriculture is steadily falling: 55% (2011) to 42% (2018) (World Bank data).
    3. Small &  marginal farmers (Landholding less than 2 ha) — 86% of total 15 cr farmers.
    4. The agriculture sector employs over 52% of the workforce, contributing to only 14% of the GDP.
  3. NABARD All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey 2016-17:
    1. Agricultural households accounted for nearly 48% of rural households. 
    2. 52.5% of the agricultural households had an outstanding loan on the date of the survey and thus were considered indebted. 
    3. The average annual income of an agricultural household is ₹1.07 lakh.
    4. Only 10.5% of agricultural households were found to have a valid Kisan Credit Card at the time of the survey. 
    5. The southern states of Telangana (79%), Andhra Pradesh (77%), and Karnataka (74%) showed the highest levels of indebtedness among agricultural households.
  4. Agricultural income:
    1. Only 43% of the average monthly income of farmers is from the cultivation of crops and livestock, which has to be improved.
    2. Incomes have been stagnant over the last decade with the average worker earning less than 60-70% of the income of their counterparts in the city. 
  5. GHG emissions:
    1. Agriculture is directly responsible for 14 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions, and broader rural land-use decisions have an even larger impact. 
    2. Deforestation currently accounts for an additional 18 percent of emissions.
  6. Marketing:
    1. Government plans to link 22000 mandis with the e-NAM platform by 2022.
  7. Technology:
    1. The government has approved 100% automatic FDI in seed development.
    2. As of January 2020, there were approximately 716 (Krishi Vigyan Kendra) KVKs throughout India
  8. Apiculture:
    1. India currently has 3.4 million bee colonies but has a potential of about 200 million bee colonies based on the area of cultivation.
  9. Farmer Producer Organizations:
    1. The government announced that it will form and promote 10,000 new FPOs to be formed in  5 years period from 2019-20 to 2023-24 (NABARD is also responsible).
    2. Presently, more than 3,000 FPOs are being promoted in the country through schemes of GoI, state governments, and NABARD.
  10. Mechanization:
    1. Lower farm mechanization in India is only about 40 % as compared to about 60 % in China and around 75 percent in Brazil.
    2. Indian tractor industry is the largest in the world, accounting for1/3rd of the total global production.
  11. Irrigation:
    1. Groundwater provides for over 2/3 of irrigation requirements.
  12. Credit:
    1. More than 40% of total loans are informal.
    2. As of August 17, 2020, 12.2 million Kisan credit cards were sanctioned.
  13. Subsidies:
    1. Annual central government subsidies to farmers would be of the order of Rs. 120,500 crores as the sum of 
      • Fertilizer subsidies (Rs. 70,000 crores), 
      • Credit subsidies (Rs. 20,000 crores), 
      • Crop insurance subsidies (Rs. 6500 crores, 2018/19), and expenditures towards price support (Rs. 24,000 crores). 
    2. While the importance of subsidies to farmer livelihoods may vary by region, by crop, and by farm size, they form a substantial part (20%) of aggregate farm income. 
    3. The expenditure on fertilizer subsidy is the largest input subsidy. 
    4. As a percentage of the cost of production, urea is subsidized to the extent of 75% while the subsidy on potash and phosphorous is about 35%.
  14. MSP:
    1. Government announces MSP for 22 mandated crops and FRP for sugarcane. 
    2. The mandated crops are 
      • 14 crops of the Kharif season
      • 6 rabi crops and 
      • 2 other commercial crops. 
  15. Fertilizer:
    1. India has been a net importer of fertilizer nutrients (NPK) for almost 2 decades 
    2. In 2019-20, India imported fertilizers worth $6.7 billion.
    3. In the case of urea, which we imported about 11 million tonnes in 2019-20.
    4. India wants to be Atmanirbhar by opening up 5 new urea plants in the public sector with a total capacity of 6.35 MMT.
    5. Almost 70% of the gas being used in urea plants is imported at a price much higher than the price of domestic gas. 
    6. The ideal NPK ratio is 4:2:1 whereas in Indian soils the ratio is 6.8:2.7:1.
  16. Livestock:
    1. 20th Livestock Census report–The total Livestock population is 535.7 million in the country showing an increase of 4.6% over Livestock Census-2012.
    2. UP has recorded the highest livestock population in 2019 followed by Rajasthan, MP, WB, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra.
  17. Fisheries:
    1. India is the 3rd largest producer of fish in the world, with 2,411 fish species.
    2. Constitute 1.24% of the national GDP and 7.28% of the Agriculture GDP.
    3. Fishers export–$6.8 billion.
    4. The average annual growth rate of more than 7 percent in recent years.
    5. Production: Inland > marine
    6. Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana intends to augment fish production and productivity at an annual growth rate of 9% to achieve a target of 22 million metric tons by 2024-25.
      • It strives to create direct employment to 15 lakh fishers, fish farmers, etc., and about thrice this number as indirect employment opportunities.
      • It also aims to double the incomes of fishers, fish farmers, and fish workers by 2024.
      • The Scheme will be implemented during a period of 5 years from the Financial Year (FY) 2020-21 to FY 2024-25.
      • 20,050 crores have been sanctioned for its implementation during a period of 5 years from FY 2020-21 to FY 2024-25 in all States/Union Territories, as a part of the AatmaNirbhar Bharat Package.
  18. Farmer suicide:
    1. Every day, 28 people dependent on farming die by suicide in India.
    2. 7 states in the country account for 87.5% of the farming sector suicides. 
    3. Maharashtra shows the highest figures out of these states.
  19. Food subsidies and FCI:
    1. Rs. 1.84 lakh crore for food subsidy.
    2. FCI buffer requirement 21 million tonnes–it has more than 3 times stock(71 million tonnes)
    3. FCI incurs the economic cost of around Rs. 37/kg for rice(includes procurement cost, transport cost, storage cost)
    4. And this is provided to the poor at Rs. 3/kg (Central Issue Price, CIP). 
    5. Central Subsidy under PMFBY/RWBCIS to be limited for premium rates upto 30% for unirrigated areas/crops and 25% for irrigated areas/crops. Districts having 50% or the more irrigated areas will be considered as irrigated areas/districts (Both PMFBY/RWBCIS).
  20. Food processing:
    1. Food processing accounts for almost one-third of the total food market in India.
    2. The food processing industry is valued at US$258 billion, and is the fifth-largest industry domestically in terms of production, consumption, export, and expected growth in the country.
    3. It contributes to around 14 percent of manufacturing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 13 percent of India’s total food exports.
    4. According to the Ministry of Food Processing Industry (MoFPI), post-harvest losses account for US$1.5 billion (Rs 92,000 crores) annually.
    5. The government has permitted 100 percent FDI for trading through e-commerce and manufacturing of food products through automatic route.
    6. The country’s food processing value addition is less than 10% of the produce while for most developed economies this is 100 to 300%.
  1. Infrastructure:
    1. Union Budget 2020-21 proposed to provide ₹1.7 lakh crore for transport infrastructure in 2021.
    2. The government aims to reduce the logistics cost, which is 14% of GDP at the moment to less than 10%.
    3. The ambitious plan of investment in the ₹102-lakh crore (2020-25)National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP).
  2. Energy:
    1. Energy present composition
      • 57% of coal
      • 37% large hydro- dams
      • 7% gas
      • 1.9% nuclear
    2. India is the world’s third‑largest consumer of oil, the fourth‑largest oil refiner, and a net exporter of refined products.
    3. The government aims to increase the share of natural gas in the country’s energy mix to 15% by 2030, from 6% today. 
    4. Around 750 million people in India gained access to electricity between 2000 and 2019.
    5. Under the UDAY scheme, States will take over 75% of the debt of their respective DISCOMs. 
  3. Renewable energy:
    1. The target of 175 GW of renewables by 2022.
    2. India is planning to achieve 40% of its energy from non-fossil sources by 2030, which is currently 30%.
    3. In 2019, the prime minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi, announced that India’s electricity mix would eventually include 450 GW of renewable energy capacity. 
    4. By December 2019, India had deployed a total of 84 GW of grid-connected renewable electricity capacity.
    5. India- 4th largest wind power country.
    6. India 7th largest producer of hydropower in the world.
    7. India has 80 gigawatts of renewable energy, which is nearly 20% of its total installed capacity.
  4. Ports:
    1. India has 12 major and 205 notified minor and intermediate ports.
    2. Under the National Perspective Plan for Sagarmala, six new mega ports will be developed in the country.
    3. According to the Ministry of Shipping, around 95% of India's trading by volume and 70% by value is done through maritime transport.
    4. India is the sixteenth largest maritime country in the world with a coastline of about 7,517 km.
    5. The Indian Government has allowed Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of up to 100% under the automatic route for port and harbor construction and maintenance projects.
    6. It has also facilitated a 10-year tax holiday to enterprises that develop, maintain, and operate ports, inland waterways, and inland ports.
    7. Total 14 CEZs are planned to be developed in phases across coastal India
  5. Roads:
    1. India has the second-largest road network in the world, spanning a total of 5.89 million kilometers (km).
    2. This road network transports 64.5% of all goods in the country and 90% of India's total passenger traffic uses the road network to commute.
    3. A total of 200,000 km of national highways is expected to be completed by 2022.
    4. In the next five years, the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) will be able to generate Rs. 1 lakh crore annually from toll and other sources.
    5. India will be a big market as the EV sector expands to touch $800 billion by around 2025.
  6. Airports:
    1. As of September 2020, there were 125 operational airports in India.
    2. India is expected to become the world’s third-largest aviation market by 2024.
    3. India’s passenger traffic stood at 341.05 million in FY20.
    4. India plans to open 100 additional airports by 2024.
    5. AAI plans to invest Rs 25,000 crore in next the five years to augment facilities and infrastructure at airports.
    6. In April 2020, the government introduced ‘Lifeline Udan’ flights to transport essential medical cargo to remote parts of the country to support India’s war against COVID-19.
  7. Railways:
    1. India's railway network is recognized as one of the largest railway systems in the world under single management.
    2. In the next five years, the Indian railway market will be the third-largest, accounting for 10% of the global market.
    3. Indian Railways, which is one of the country's biggest employers, can generate one million jobs
    4. Indian Railways is targeting to increase its freight traffic to 3.3 billion tonnes by 2030 from 1.1 billion tonnes in 2017.
Science and technology
  1. Research and development:
    1. India’s Gross expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP remained at 0.7% during the years 2017-18 and 2018-19 respectively. 
    2. Compared to 2%of China and 4% of Israel.
    3. Most of the developed countries spent more than 2% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on R&D. 
    4. Economic survey2017-2018–The growth in research and development (R&D) expenditure should be commensurate with the economy’s growth and should be targeted to reach at least 2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 2022.
    5. Gross Expenditure on R&D (GERD) is mainly driven by the Central government comprising of  45.4% share.
    6. To stimulate the private sector’s investment in R&D from the current 0.35% of GDP, it is suggested that a minimum percentage of turn-over of the company may be invested in R&D by medium and large enterprises.
    7. India's Global Innovation Index 2020 rank is 48 among 131 economies, moves up by four positions since 2019.
  2. Biotechnology:
    1. Indian bio-economy to reach $100 billion by 2025, predicts BIRAC(Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council).
    2. Bt-cotton accounts for 90% of total cotton acreage.
  3. Role of women in science and technology:
    1. Women globally represent just 29 % of researchers.
    2. Globally only 3 %(20) of the Nobel Prizes for science have been awarded to women.
    3. Out of 560 awardees of the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, only 18 recipients have been women.
  4. Mobile and internet:
    1. 450 million internet users in India
    2. Total mobile subscriber base including active and inactive users has reached 1,176 million in 2018 (TRAI).
    3. According to TRAI, at the end of 2019, urban teledensity was 156% while the rural one was trailing at 56%.
    4. India hosts over a billion mobile phone users of which 600 million are estimated to be smartphone users.
    5. India’s global share in electronics has risen from 1.3 percent in 2012 to 3 percent in 2018 and from just 2 mobile manufacturing factories, the country has now 200 such units.
    6. India has become the second-largest manufacturer of mobile phones in the world.
    7. According to the ICT Price Trends 2019 by the ITU, benchmarking 192 countries, India was one of 33 countries where high-consumption mobile data and voice package can be purchased for less than 1% of per capita income.
    8. It is notable given that, in 2019, the Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development set out the target of 2% by 2022.
    9. Reduction in tariffs, network expansion, availability of low-cost devices, and a spurt in audio-visual content led to the exponential growth of mobile subscriptions to 1.2 billion, with unique subscribers of 700 million.
    10. Ironically, despite being ranked 130 out of 140 nations in terms of mobile data speed (at 11GB per month on average), an Indian broadband customer consumes more data than anybody else globally, thanks to the world’s lowest data tariff of just Rs 3.5 ($0.05) per GB.
    11. Women account for just 35% of all internet users in the country and just 31% in rural areas, and the gap is more than double at 56% in mobile internet usage.
  5. National Broadband Mission (NBM):
    1. Involves laying of incremental 30 lakh route km of optical fiber cable and increasing tower density from 0.42 to 1 tower per thousand population by 2024.
    2. The mission will envisage stakeholder investment of $100 billion (Rs 7 lakh crore) including Rs 70,000 crore from USOF in the coming years.
Environment and Biodiversity
  1. Indian resources:
    1. India has 18% of the world population
    2. 2.5% world's land area
    3. 4% of the world's freshwater resources.
  2. Wildlife:
    1. According to data presented in the Lok Sabha more than 100 people were killed by tigers between 2015 and 2018.
    2. National Board for Wildlife(NBWL) cleared more than 90% of projects that came up for scrutiny.
    3. India has more than 60% of the global Asian elephant population in the 30 Elephant Reserve of 14 states over an area of around 65,000 sq km.
    4. 50 tiger reserves are spread across 18 states.
    5. Tiger census 2018(4th cycle–started in 2006): 2967 tigers.
    6. India has 70% of the world’s tigers.
    7. Tiger census 2018: Jim Corbett has the most number of tigers in the country, with 231/2967.
  3. Environmental conservation:
    1. India's ecological footprint- 1.16 gha/ person- but India's carrying capacity is 0.45gha/ person
    2. It means to provide for our consumption, we require an area which is 2.5 times greater than the present area of India
    3. 3 top countries with a global footprint – US, China, India.
    4. India has the highest area (13.96 million ha) under bamboo and is the second richest country, after China, in terms of bamboo diversity with 136 species.
  4. Environmental degradation:
    1. 30% of India facing desertification and land degradation.
    2. 96.4 million hectares i.e. 29.32% of the Total Geographical Area of the country are undergoing the process of desertification/land degradation. 
    3. Approximately 6.35% of land in Uttar Pradesh is undergoing desertification/degradation.
    4. According to International Resources Panel, a scientific body hosted by the UNEP, about 25% of the world’s land area has been degraded.
    5. Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced that India would raise its target for restoring degraded land from 21 million hectares to 26 million hectares by 2030.
  5. Sand and coal mining:
    1. Sand is the most abundantly mined resource illegally on the earth, it employs about 75000 people in India for illegal extraction.
    2. Illegal sand mining is a 200bn market globally.
    3. A study of coal mining clearances shows that 4,302 ha of forest were diverted during 2014-18, favoring extraction over conservation.
  6. India State of Forest Report (ISFR),2019:
    1. Forest cover–21.67%
    2. Tree cover 2.89%
    3. Forest + tree cover= 24.56% of the geographical area of the country.
    4. Mangrove cover in India is 4,975 sq km, which is 0.15% of the country's total geographical area. 
  7. Air pollution:
    1. India had 14 out of the world’s 20 most polluted cities in terms of PM2.5 levels in 2016, says WHO.
    2. Nine out of 10 people in the world breathe air containing high levels of pollutants.
    3. Around 3 billion people — more than 40% of the world’s population — still do not have access to clean cooking fuels and technologies in their homes, the main source of household air pollution.
    4. WHO recognizes air pollution is a critical risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), causing an estimated 24% of all adult deaths from heart disease, 25% from stroke, 43% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 29% from lung cancer.
    5. Air pollution is now India’s third-highest cause of death.
    6. 1.7 million deaths in India(18% of the total deaths in the country)  were attributable to air pollution in 2019.
    7. Centre for Science and Environment reported that air pollution kills an average of 8.5 out of every 10,000 children in India before they turn five.
    8. WHO in 2016 reported that pollution has led to the deaths of over 1 lakh children in India.
    9. Air pollution led to an economic loss of 1.4% of the GDP or ₹260,000 crores due to the lost output from premature deaths and morbidity.
    10. The economic loss due to air pollution as a percentage of the state GDP was higher in the northern and central Indian states, with the highest in Uttar Pradesh (2.2% of GDP) and Bihar (2% of GDP).
    11. India is the largest emitter of anthropogenic SO2 in the world
    12. India has over 15% of all anthropogenic SO2 hotspots in the world.
    13. India – 2nd largest emitter of Black Carbon.
  8. Stubble burning:
    1. Over 25% of the total crop residues were burnt on the farm.
    2. The major contribution was 43% of rice, followed by wheat to around 21%, sugarcane to 19%, and oilseed crops around 5%.
  9. E-Waste:
    1. The volume of E-waste increased by 21% globally in the last 5 years; it has a doubling rate of 16 years. (UN’s Global E-waste Monitor, 2020) 
    2. Global E-waste production is around 50 million tonnes
    3. India ranks 5th among E-waste producing countries, after the US, China, Japan, and Germany.
    4. E-waste recycling has doubled in the country in 2018-19–recycling rate of 10% in 2017-18 has risen to 20% in 2018-19.
  10. Plastic waste:
    1. India generates 25,940 tonnes of plastic waste every day, but 40% of it remains uncollected.
    2. Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, and Bengaluru combined generate more than 50% of the total plastic waste.
    3. India would phase out single-use plastics by 2022.
  11. Climate change:
    1. Over 600 million people risk the impact of climate change in India.
    2. Oxygen loss from warming has alarming consequences for global oceanic oxygen reserves, which have already been reduced by 2% over a period of just 50-years (from 1960 to 2010). 
    3. The Antarctic region has registered its highest-ever temperature on record as the mercury soared over 20 degrees Celsius (Feb 2020).
    4. Sea level may rise 1.1 meters by 2100 if countries are not able to restrict emissions “well below” 2 degrees: IPCC.
    5. Global Climate Risk Index 2020-India is the 5th most vulnerable country to climate change.
    6. More than 90% of the energy trapped by GHGs goes into the oceans and ocean heat content provides a direct measure of this energy accumulation in the upper layers of the ocean.
    7. The latest Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2021 has placed India among the top 10 countries to have adopted substantial measures to mitigate climate change. The report has ranked India at the 10th position with 63.98 scores.
  12. Reduction targets:
    1. INDC submitted to UNFCCC in 2015, India set a target to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 through additional forests by 2030.
    2. India had in 2015 committed to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33-35% by 2030 from the 2005 level.
    3. India Achieves 20% reduction in emissions intensity: Power minister.
  13. Water resources:
    1. As per the NITI Aayog report, 
      • Nearly 600 million Indians face “high to extreme water stress”
      • 75% of households do not have drinking water on their premises. 
      • 81.67% of rural households do not have tap water connections.
    2. India’s annual per capita availability of water 1,545 cubic meters in 2011, which may further fall to 1,341 cubic meters in 2025.
    3. Water demand likely to double by 2030, indicating there will be a 6% loss in the gross domestic product by 2050.
    4. India’s most water-stressed blocks situated in TN (541), followed by Rajasthan.
Disaster management
  1. Disasters:
    1. India is one of the 10 worst disaster-prone countries in the world. 
    2. Loss of USD 10 Billion, over 2000 dead: India bore brunt of 2020’s weather disasters.
    3. The floods in India this year were the fifth most expensive extreme weather event in the world, costing the country $10 billion.
    4. 58.6 % of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of moderate to high intensity. 
    5. Of 7516 km long coastline, close to 5700 km is prone to cyclones and Tsunamis; 
    6. 65% of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought.
    7. 12% of India’s land area is susceptible to landslides.
    8. Over 80% rise in heatwave days in 2019.
    9. India loses many lives to fires each year: at 12,748 accidental deaths in 2018, nearly double the number caused by forces of nature, according to NCRB data. 
  1. Defense:
    1. India is the world's second-largest arms importer. (SIPRI report)
    2. The defense budget for 2020-21 is Rs 3.37 lakh crore.
    3. The expenditure on defense constitutes 2.1% of India's estimated GDP for 2020-21.
    4. India is the world’s 3rd largest military spender, expense rose by 6.8% in 2019.
  2. Internal Security:
    1. Over 21% decline in police recruitment in States in 2019. (Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D))
    2. There are only 144 police officers for every 100,000 citizens (the commonly used measure of police strength), making India's police force one of the weakest in the world.
    3. India’s police-to-population ratio lags behind most countries and the United Nations-recommended ratio of 222.
    4. The overall crime rate in India in 2018 increased marginally since 2016–(NCRB 2018 report).
    5. Border Area Development Programme (BADP) has been allocated ₹784 crores in 2020-21.
  3. Cybersecurity:
    1. Cybercrimes in India caused Rs 1.25 lakh crore loss in 2019.
    2. Medical details of over 120 million Indian patients have been leaked and made freely available on the Internet, according to a recent report published by Greenbone Sustainable Resilience, a German cybersecurity firm.
    3. Maharashtra tops the list of states hit by the global medical data leak.

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