GS1 Mains 2020: Important Data and Key Findings of Reports to Quote in Mains Answers

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Society

Women
  1. Population
    1. India has a 48.20% female population compared to a 51.80% male population.
  2. Women Farmer
    1. The Food and Agriculture Organization says that if women farmers had the same access to resources as men, they would increase output by 20-30% which would mean a dramatic reduction in hunger. This could raise total agricultural output in developing countries by up to 4%.
    2. Women make up about 33% of cultivators and about 47% of agricultural laborers in rural India.
    3. Overall, the percentage of rural women who depend on agriculture for their livelihood is as high as 84%.
    4. Women have just a dismal 12.8% of land holdings despite being crucial to the whole production chain.
    5. According to Oxfam India, women are responsible for about 60-80% of food and 90% of dairy production, respectively. 
    6. In 2014, according to the National Crime Records Bureau, of 8,007 farmer suicides, 441 were women. Also, 577 women laborers committed suicide that year.
  3. Women Leader
    1. Esther Duflo and Raghabendra Chattopadhyay (NBER Working Paper 8615) showed that in a randomized trial in West Bengal, women pradhans (heads of village panchayats) focus on infrastructure that is relevant to the needs of rural women, suggesting that at least at the local level outcomes can be different.
    2. Countries like Rwanda which has more than 60% of women representatives in parliament in 2017. India has 14% in the 17th Lok Sabha.
  4. Crimes against women
    1. National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data recorded an increase of 7.3% from 2018 to 2019 for a crime against women.
    2. Of the total crimes against women registered by the NCRB during 2019, over 30% were that of domestic violence. Of these, the highest reported cases were from Rajasthan followed by Uttar Pradesh.
    3. The Thomson Reuters Foundation’s global poll in 2018 named India as the most dangerous country for women
  5. Sexual Harassment
    1. “According to a 2015 research study36% of Indian companies and 25% of multinational companies had not yet constituted their Internal Complaints Committee (ICCs) which is mandatory under the Sexual Harassment Act. “
    2. 70% of the women do not report sexual harassment by superiors due to the fear of repercussions. 
  6. Gender-wage gap
    1. On average, women are paid 34% less than men, a recent report by the International Labour Organization (ILO) has found. 2018-19.
    2. A survey by Monster.com reported that nearly 60% of working women in India face discrimination at work and over one-third women belief that they are not easily considered for top management roles. 
  7. Female Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR)
    1. The share of working-age women who report either being employed or being available for work—has fallen to a historic low of 23.3% in 2017-18, meaning that over three out of four women over the age of 15 in India are neither working nor seeking work.
    2. The global share of women in the workforce is 40%, which means India is well below average. 
    3. India can increase its GDP by up to 60% by 2025 by enabling more women to participate in its workforce, a 2015 study by the McKinsey Global Institute.
  8. Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)
    1. According to the All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2018-19 by the Ministry of Education, women constitute nearly 43% of the total STEM enrollments in the country
    2. According to the 2018 UNESCO Institute for Statistics’ report on women in science, 44% of bachelor students and 41% of doctoral students in India are female.
  9. Financial Inclusion
    1. Global Findex Report 2017 estimates that 77% of Indian women now own a bank account against respective 43% and 26% in 2014 and 2011.
  10. Marriage
    1. As per the National Family Health Survey, 26.8% of women were married before 18 years.
    2. 1 in every 3 child brides in the world is a girl in India (UNICEF)
    3. UNICEF’s State of the World’s Children 2016 report noted that “Girls from the poorest households—and those living in rural areas—face twice the risk of being married before 18 than those living in urban areas.
  11. Nutrition

Children
  1. Population
    1. There are 472 million children in India under the age of 18 years. This constitutes 39% of the total population in the country (Census 2011)
  2. Education
    1. Poor learning outcomes among children, only 42.5% of children in grade 3 can read a grade 1 text.
    2. As per ASER 5.5% of rural children are not currently enrolled for the 2020 school year, up from 4% in 2018.
  3. Child Labor
    1. As per Census 2011, in the age group (5-14) years, 10.1 million (3.9% of total child population) were working, either as ‘main worker’ or as ‘marginal worker’.

  4. Nutrition
    1. India accounts for 28% (40.3 million) of the world’s stunted children (low height-for-age) under five years of age.
    2. 43% (20.1 million) of the world’s wasted children (low weight-for-height) in 2019.
    3. As per the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2015-16), the proportion of underweight and stunted children was as high as 35.8% and 38.4% respectively.
    4. In several districts of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and even Gujarat, the proportion of underweight children was more than 40%.
  5. Crime against children
    1. Over the last 10 years, crimes against children have increased 5 times over (National Crime Record Bureau Data Series)
Minorities
  1. Population
    1. As per the Census 2011, the percentage of minorities in the country is about 19.3% of the total population of the country.
    2. The population of Muslims are 14.2%; Christians 2.3%; Sikhs 1.7%, Buddhists 0.7%, Jain 0.4% and Parsis 0.006%. 
  2. Crime
    1. Hate crimes motivated by religious bias shot up to a decade-high of 93 in 2018, according to a multi-organization project led by FactChecker.in.
    2. According to the 2018 NCRB report, marginalized communities are over-represented in Indian jails.
  3. Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR)
    1. For male was much higher than female for all religious groups – the differential being greater in urban areas.
    2. The male-female differential in LFPR was the lowest among Christians.
    3. The LFPR for rural males, rural female,s and urban females was the highest for Christians while that for urban males was the highest for Sikhs.
Scheduled Castes
  1. Population
    1. Dalits form around 16.6% of India’s population.
    2. Four states account for nearly half of the country as per the 2011 census.
    3. Uttar Pradesh stands first with 20.5% of the total scheduled caste (SC) population, followed by West Bengal with 10.7%, Bihar with 8.2%, and Tamil Nadu with 7.2 % come third and fourth. 
  2. Living Condition

  3. Crime against Dalit
    1. A crime is committed against a Dalit every 15 minutes.
    2. Over the last 10 years (2007-2017), there has been a 66% growth in crime against Dalits.”
Tribals in India
  1. Population
    1. “According to the 2011 census, the tribal population in India is over 104 million which is spread across 705 tribes and accounts for 8.6% of the country’s population.
    2. Numerically M.P. has the highest tribal population (15mn) followed by Maharashtra (10mn), Odisha, and Rajasthan. “
  2. Literacy
    1. “According to census 2011 literacy rate for STs is 59% compared to the national average of 74%.”
    2. Literacy level among ST men is at 68.5% but for women, it is still below 50% 
  3. Reservation
Elderly
  1. Population

  2. Growth Projection
    1. A report released by the United Nations Population Fund and HelpAge India suggests that the number of elderly persons is expected to grow to 173 million by 2026.
    2. According to Population Census 2011, there are nearly 104 million elderly persons (aged 60 years or above) in India; 53 million females and 51 million males.
  3. Financial dependence
    1. 65% of the elderly in India are dependent on others for their financial requirements and undergo a financial crisis.
  4. Workforce participation

Disability
  1. Population
    1. In India, according to the 2011 Census, 2.21% of the population has one or multiple types of disabilities.
  2. Accessibility
    1. Exclusion of persons with disabilities from education, employment, and participation cost at around 7% of national GDP.

Poverty
  1. Poverty estimation
    1. In 2011, the Suresh Tendulkar Committee defined the poverty line on the basis of monthly spending on food, education, health, electricity, and transport.
    2. According to this estimate, a person who spends Rs. 27.2 in rural areas and Rs. 33.3 in urban areas a day are defined as living below the poverty line.
    3. According to a committee headed by former Reserve Bank governor C Rangarajan, there were 363 million people, or 29.5% of India’s 1.2 billion people, who lived in poverty in 2011-12. The Rangarajan panel considered people living on less than Rs. 32 a day in rural areas and Rs. 47 a day in urban areas as poor.
  2. Number
    1. India, with its population of 1.3 billion people, now has 5% of its population living in extreme poverty, according to the World Poverty Clock.
  3. Comparison

Urbanization
  1. Estimation & Projection
    1. About 34% of India's population now lives in urban areas, the U.N. World Urbanization Prospects 2018 report.
    2. It has been estimated that by 2050 more than 50% of India’s population will live in cities.

    3. The rural population (% of the total population) in India was reported at 66.46 % in 2017.
  2. Infrastructure
    1. India spends about $17 per capita annually on urban infrastructure projects, against a global benchmark of $100 and China’s $116.
  3. Pollution
    1. 14 Indian cities are being ranked amongst the world’s 20 most polluted by a WHO report.
    2. The CPCB report also reveals that only 68% of the MSW generated in the country is collected of which, 28% is treated by the municipal authorities. Thus, merely 19% of the total waste generated is currently treated.
    3. According to a UN report, India’s e-waste from old computers alone will jump 500 % by 2020, compared to 2007.
Population
  1. Growth
    1. India accounts for over one-sixth of the world’s population in 2019 (1.37 billion out of 7.71 billion) and has grown at a rate (1.2% per year between 2010 and 2019) that is just over the world growth rate (1.2%), according to State of the World Population 2019, the flagship report of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).

  2. Fertility
    1. India’s fertility rate in 2019 is 2.3 births per woman, compared to 2.5 worldwide.
  3. Life expectancy
    1. In 1950-55, life expectancy at birth in India was 36.6 years, whereas the average in the world was 46.8 years.
    2. By 2010-15, life expectancy in India had almost caught up with the global average: 67.5 years in India, compared with 70.5 years globally.
  4. Income Inequality
    1. Although India’s upper caste households earned nearly 47% more than the national average annual household income, the top 10% within these castes owned 60% of the wealth within the group in 2012, as per a recent paper by the World Inequality Database.
    2. The wealthiest 1% among them grew their wealth by nearly 16% points to 29.4% over the decade to 2012, the paper, as per paper entitled ‘Wealth Inequality, Class and Caste in India, 1961-2012’ 
  5. Sex ratio

  6. Nutritional Status
    1. There were  189.2 million undernourished people (28% of the world) in India in 2017-19, as per the combined report of FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, and WHO (FAO, et.al. 2020) on “The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World”.


  7. Financial Inclusion-Global perspective

  8. World Population

Transgender
  1. Population
    1. The total population of transgenders according to the 2011 Census is 4.8 lakh.
  2. Discrimination
    1. Estimates suggest there are 50 to 60 lakh transgenders in India but most keep it a secret to avoid discrimination.
    2. Around 99% have suffered social rejection on more than one occasion, including from their family
    3. while 96% of transgenders are denied jobs and are forced to take low paying or undignified work for livelihood like badhais, sex work, and begging.
    4. Around 50 to 60% of transgenders have never attended schools and faced discrimination.
    5. Around 57% are keen on getting sex-alignment surgery but don’t have money for it. 
  3. Labour force participation
    1. According to the study by the National Human Rights Commission, about 92% of transgenders are deprived of the right to participate in any form of economic activity in the country, with even qualified ones refused jobs
    2. A 2016 survey by Mission for Indian Gay and Lesbian Empowerment (MINGLE) revealed one in five LGBT employees were discriminated against at the workplace. Such discrimination has economic costs too.
    3. A 2014 World Bank report said India loses $31 billion due to stigma and exclusion of the community. 

Manual Scavenging

 

Health
  1. Budget expenditure
    1. India ranks 184th out of 191 in terms of GDP% spend on healthcare, as per WHO.
    2. At present, Government spending on the healthcare industry stands at 1.15% of the Gross Domestic.
    3. Households continue to be the dominant contributors (73% of CHE) to health finance in India.
    4. The bulk of the total money circulating in Indian healthcare – around 69% – comes from Out Of Pocket (OOP) payment by households.
    5. OOP is the money that individuals pay out of their own. High OOP spending is a result of abysmally low government spending on health.
  2. Infrastructure
    1. There are a shortfall of 20% sub-centres, 22% of public health centres, and 32% of community health centres.
    2. The average population served by one public sector allopathic doctor is 11 times higher than the World Health Organization’s recommendations.
  3. Maternal Health
    1. The Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) has declined from 122 in 2015-17 to 113 in 2016-18 registering a 7.4 % decline, according to the special bulletin on Maternal Mortality in India 2016-18, released by the Office of the Registrar General’s Sample Registration System (SRS).
    2. Only 21% of mothers (1 in 5) received full antenatal care in the country (NFHS 4, 2015-16)
    3. More than 50% of the pregnant women aged 15-49 years were found to be anaemic (NFHS 4, 2015-16)
  4. Infant Mortality
    1. Nationally, according to 2017 government data, 34 out of every 1,000 newborns will not survive till their first birthday, of whom 25 would not have lived beyond their first 28 days.
  5. Mortality

  6. Disease
    1. The estimated proportion of all deaths due to Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) has increased from 37.09% in 1990 to 61.8% in 2016.
    2. India has the third-largest HIV-infected population with an estimated 2 million people.
    3. The country aims to decrease new infections by 75% between 2010 and 2020 and eliminate AIDS by 2030.
    4. At the national level, 53% of women are anaemic, as per Health Ministry data.
    5. More than half 54% of adolescent girls have anaemia compared to 30% of boys.
  7. Drug abuse
    1. National Survey by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (2002) found that 29% of the drug abusers were illiterates and a significant number of them came from lower strata.
  8. Mental Wellbeing


  9. Health Insurance
    1. 71st Round of National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) has found that 85.9% of rural households and 82% of urban households have no access to healthcare insurance/assurance. “
Education
  1. Literacy
    1. The literacy rate in the country is 74.04%, 82.14 for males and 65.46 for females. Kerala retained its position by being on top with a 93.91% literacy rate, closely followed by Lakshadweep (92.28%) and Mizoram (91.58%).

  2. Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER)
    1. There has also been an increase of more than 7% in the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of women in higher education in this period — from 17.9% in 2010-11 to 25.4% this year.
Crime
  1. Cybercrime


    Digital Infrastructure at stake

  2. Against SC & STs
    1. Crime against Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) saw an increase of over 7% and 26% respectively in the year 2019 compared to 2018, according to the annual Crime in India 2019 report published by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB).
  3. Various Offenses
    1. Jaipur is the country’s con capital Jaipur has the highest rate for combined economic offenses. 
    2. India's national violent crime rate was 18.4%


Demographic Dividend
  1. Projections
    1. The window of demographic dividend opportunity in India is available for five decades from 2005-06 to 2055-56, longer than any other country in the world.
    2. The working-age group 15-59 years accounts for 62.5% of India’s population.
    3. The working-age population will reach the highest proportion of approximately 65% in 2036.
    4. According to Economic Survey 2018-19, India’s Demographic Dividend will peak around 2041, when the share of working-age,i.e. 20-59 years, the population is expected to hit 59%.

Migrants
  1. India
    1. According to a report published in 2017 by Cornell University, climate change could account for up to 4 billion forced migrations by the year 2060.
    2. By 2100, they estimate that number would surpass 2 billion.
    3. The Economic Survey 2017 estimates that the magnitude of inter-state migration in India was close to 9 million annually between 2011 and 2016.
  2. Global

 

Water Scarcity
  1. India
    1. About 85% of India’s rural domestic water requirements, 50% of its urban water requirements, and more than 50% of its irrigation requirements are being met from groundwater resources.
    2. In a country, which has 17% of the world’s population but only 4% of the freshwater reserves, we are consuming three times more water for agriculture than the USA, Brazil, or China.
    3. The report titled “Composite Water Management Index”, published by NITI Aayog in June 2018, mentions that India is undergoing the worst water crisis in its history and nearly 600 million people are facing high to extreme water stress.
  2. Global
    1. 12% of the global population — were still lacking basic drinking water services
    2. In Asia and Africa, women walk an average of 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) per day collecting water.
    3. Water is essential to life, yet 785 million people in the world – 1 in 9 – lack access to it as per water.org is a global water crisis.
    4. All life needs water; every 90 seconds, a child dies from water-related illness and disease.

Geography & Disaster Management

    1. The economic impact of Disaster
      1. India Lost $79.5 Billion to Natural Disasters in 20 Years: UN Report 2018
      2. India suffered losses of $80 billion during the 20-year period. Globally, disaster losses are estimated at $520 billion per annum, pushing more than 26 million people into poverty every year.
      3. “Human Cost of Weather-Related Disasters (1995- 2015):- UN Report
    2. Disaster Vulnerability
      1. 68% of India's land is prone to drought, 60% to earthquakes, 12% to floods, and 8% to cyclones making India one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, affecting overall 85% of Indian land and more than 50 million people.
      2. According to the Geological Survey of India (GSI), about 12.6% of the total landmass of India falls under the landslide-prone hazardous zone.
      3. Disaster Vulnerabilities: 95% of households in India vulnerable to earthquakes. Nearly 59% of India’s land area is prone to moderate or severe earthquakes.
    3. Casualties
      1. Over the last twenty years, the overwhelming majority (90%) of disasters have been caused by floods, storms, heatwaves, and other weather-related events.
      2. Over this period, weather-related disasters claimed 606,000 lives, an average of some 30,000 per annum, with an additional 4.1 billion people injured, left homeless or in need of emergency assistance.”
    4. Disaster
      1. As per IMD, the number of cyclones and severe cyclones in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal has risen by nearly 11% in the last decade with an alarming 32% increase recorded in the last five years.



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