NDMA Guidelines on Drought Management

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Drought in India

Drought is termed as any lack of water to satisfy the normal needs of agriculture, livestock, industry or human population. It is shaded in red/yellow on the given maps.

The main types of drought are as follows:

  1. Meteorological Drought: Reduction in rainfall for a specific period below a specific amount.
  2. Hydrological Drought: Drying up of water sources – both surface and groundwater (together or individually)
  3. Soil Moisture Drought: Unavailability of adequate moisture to support the standing crop.
  4. Ecological Drought: Productivity of a natural eco-system falls significantly as a consequence of distress induced environmental damage.

In India, since 60% of the agriculture is still rainfed, meteorological drought is an important cause of drought conditions. Thus, any deficit in monsoon rains is felt to a large extent especially in areas that have large rain variability – leeward side of Western Ghats (Marathwada and Vidarbha) and North-west extremities of the country.

National Disaster Management Guidelines on Management of Drought