Syllabus for Botany Optional

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UPSC Botany Optional Syllabus

The UPSC has Botany as an optional subject in the list of optional subjects containing 48 subjects in total.

The Botany syllabus for Mains Exam tests the candidates’ ability to understand the subject as science and apply botanical knowledge to ecological problems. The topics included in this subject are related to theoretical and applied Botany. Candidates who have studied Botany as a part of their curriculum or have a strong background in plant biology should take up this optional subject.

Syllabus for Botany Optional Paper I
  • Microbiology and Plant Pathology: Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi, and mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis. Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi, and nematodes; Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defense; Physiology of parasitism and control measures; Fungal toxins; Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.
  • Cryptogams: Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes – structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and economic importance.
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  • 3. Phanerogams: Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymnosperms; Classification and distribution of gymnosperms; Salient features of Cycada-les, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction; General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales; Geological time scale; Type of fossils and their study techniques. Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny. Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology. Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of classification of angiosperms; Study of angiosperms families – Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and Orchidaceae. Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary growth; Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy. Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm – its development and function; Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony and apomixes; Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube fertilization.



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