|UPSC Electrical Engineering Optional|
The UPSC optional subjects list consists of 48 subjects including the Electrical Engineering syllabus of which focuses on the candidates’ understanding of the basic concepts and application of knowledge.
The syllabus Electrical Engineering Optional focuses on the candidates’ understanding of the basic concepts and application of knowledge. The topics included in this subject are related to Analog and Digital Electronics, Power Systems, Microprocessors, etc.
|Syllabus for Electrical Engineering Optional Paper-I|
- Circuit Theory: Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady-state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits; Two-port networks.
- Signals & Systems: Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.
- E.M. Theory: Maxwell's equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection, and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line: traveling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart.
- Analog Electronics: Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET, and MOSFET. Diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback, and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Linear and switching power supplies.
- Digital Electronics: Boolean algebra; minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters, and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).
- Energy Conversion: Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines: characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors; Transformers: principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: characteristics and performance analysis; speed control.
- Power Electronics and Electric Drives: Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET-static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters: fully controlled and half controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DCDC converters; Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac Motor drive applications of variable-speed drives.
- Analog Communication: Random variables: continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise: white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC, and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation system: Superheterodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase-locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.
|Syllabus for Electrical Engineering Optional Paper-II|
- Control Systems: Elements of control systems; block-diagram representation; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems: time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bodeplots and polar plots, Nyquist's criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State variable representation and analysis of control systems.
- Microprocessors and Microcomputers: PC organization; CPU, instruction set, register set, timing diagram, programming, interrupts, memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices.
- Measurement and Instrumentation: Error analysis; measurement of current, voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance, and frequency; bridge measurement. Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic measuring instruments: multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyzer, distortion-meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-gauge, piezo-electric crystal.
- Power Systems: Analysis and Control: Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability: swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission.
- Power System Protection: Principles of overcurrent, differential, and distance protection. Concept of solid-state relays. Circuit breakers. Computer-aided protection: Introduction; line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection.
- Digital Communication: Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: amplitude, phase, and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding: error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.