August 2023 Yojana | Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav
Table of Contents
- August 2023 Yojana | Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav
- Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav
- INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR HOLISTIC WELL BEING
- SPORTS BINDING THE NATION TOGETHER
- INDIAN ECONOMY HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND WAY FORWARD
- VISION FOR INDUSTRY
- LEVERAGING TECHNOLOGY FOR ACCESSIBLE QUALITY EDUCATION
- ATAL INNOVATION MISSION BUILDING A HOLISTIC INNOVATION ECOSYSTEM
- INDIA'S G20 PRESIDENCY
- AGRICULTURE – A JOURNEY FROM SHORTAGE TO SURPLUS
- SWEET REVOLUTION: A BOOM IN HONEY PRODUCTION
Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav
- Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav is an initiative of the Government of India to celebrate and commemorate 75 years of independence and the glorious history of India and its people.
- The celebration started on March 12, 2021, with a 75-week countdown to the 75th anniversary of independence, which will end on August 15, 2023.
- The celebration has five themes, which are:
- Ideas@75: This theme highlights the programs and events inspired by ideas and ideals that have shaped India so far and will influence the country for the next 25 years until India's 100th independence day, named Amrit Kaal. The events and initiatives in this section include Kashi Utsav and Post Cards to Prime Minister.
- Youth@75: This theme focuses on the youth of India and their role in shaping the future of the country. The events and initiatives in this section include the launch of the National Youth Parliament Festival and the National Service Scheme.
- Culture@75: This theme celebrates the rich cultural heritage of India and its diversity. The events and initiatives in this section include the Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav and the Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat program.
- Actions@75: This theme highlights the achievements of India in various fields and encourages people to take action towards building a better India. The events and initiatives in this section include the launch of the National Digital Health Mission and the Swachh Bharat Mission.
- Amrit Mahotsav: This theme is dedicated to the people of India who have not only been instrumental in bringing India thus far in its evolutionary journey but also hold within them the power and potential to enable Prime Minister Narendra Modi's vision of activating India 2.0, fueled by the spirit of Aatmanirbhar Bharat. The events and initiatives in this section include the Meri Maati Mera Desh campaign and the India@75 Quiz.
- The celebration aims to boost the people's movement through collaborative campaigns and outreach across India and the world, aligned with the 'Panch Pran' announced by Hon'ble Prime Minister, which includes Women and Children, Tribal Empowerment, Water, Cultural Pride, Lifestyle for Environment (LiFE), Health and Wellness, Inclusive Development, Aatmanirbhar Bharat, and Unity.
- Mera Maati Mera Desh:
- It campaign is envisaged from 9th August 2023 as a culminating event of 'Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav'.
- It is a tribute to the Veers and Veeranganas who have made the supreme sacrifice for the country.
- This campaign comprises many activities and ceremonies conducted across the country at Panchayat/Village, Block, Urban Local Body, State and National levels.
- A fundamental aspect of the program is to express heartfelt gratitude to all the bravehearts (Veers and Veeranganas) who have made the supreme sacrifice. Shilaphalakam (a stone memorial) shall be erected locally within Panchayats/Villages as well as urban sites—likely near Amrit Sarovars or local schools or other prominent locations.
- At the memorial site, people will take a solemn pledge covering Panch Pran of the Hon'ble Prime Minister, affirming their commitment to the country- Make India developed and self-reliant by 2047, Remove any trace of colonial mindset, celebrate our heritage, strengthen unity and respect those who protect the country, Perform the duties of a citizen
- Vasudha Vandha: Panchayats/villages/urban local bodies will replenish Mother Earth by planting 75 saplings of indigenous species and develop the ‘Amrit Vatika.
- Veeron Ka Vandan: Felicitation ceremonies shall be held for honouring the freedom fighters and the families of deceased freedom fighters.
- Rashtragaan: Hoisting of the National Flag and singing of Rashtragaan shall be undertaken at the sites.
- Amrit Kalash Yatra: Youth volunteers and other people from all corners of the country would collect Mitti from Panchayats/Villages, subsequently, Mitti Kalash having the soil from the Panchayats/Villages/urban areas, would be carried to the National Capital.
- Har Ghar Tiranga: To encourage people to bring the Tiranga home and to hoist it to mark the 76th year of India’s independence.
- Mera Gaon Meri Dharohar (MGMD): Under the MGMD cultural mapping of 6.5 lakh villages is being carried out and more than 2 Lakh villages have already been mapped and uploaded on the Mission portal that serves as the National Cultural Work Place.
INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR HOLISTIC WELL BEING
- Integrating traditional medicine and allopathy in India signifies a transformative step towards holistic well-being.
- This synergistic approach combines the respective strengths of both systems, providing patients with comprehensive care that addresses their physical, mental, and spiritual needs.
“Our vision for wellness is as global as it is domestic. The world is looking at health and wellness seriously, especially after Covid-19. India has much to offer in this regard. Our yoga and Ayurveda can contribute to a healthy planet.” – PM Modi
- The Ayushman Bharat initiative, launched in 2018, comprising Health and Wellness Centres (ABHWCs) and the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY), has been instrumental in addressing healthcare challenges and reducing healthcare costs.
- AB-HWCs deliver comprehensive primary healthcare services and wellness activities to the community, while PMJAY offers free hospitalization and inpatient services to the poor and vulnerable.
- Under the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY), financial protection is provided to 40% of the eligible population across 33 States and Union Territories; had to travel long distances to
- Over 23 crore Ayushman cards were created, and it has empanelled over 28,368 hospitals to provide a higher level of care.
- The Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission (ABDM) was launched to develop and support the integrated digital health infrastructure of the country.
- The Mission facilitates the nation's participation in the digital health ecosystem through the creation of Ayushman Bharat Health Accounts (ABHA).
- The ABHA ID intends to establish a unique identity across different healthcare providers, link all healthcare benefits ranging from public health programmes to insurance schemes to the ID, facilitate ease of registration in healthcare facilities across the country.
- e-health initiatives like eSanjeevani services available at over 1.11 lakh AB-HWCs have reduced the gap in care access and brought specialist care closer to home.
Pandemic Response and Preparedness
- The nation rapidly expanded its testing capacity to over 3388 labs, 821 governments and 1,487 private RT-PCR labs, 1, 115 cartridge labs, and 53 genome sequencing labs by 2022.
- The Atmanirbhar Bharat initiative facilitated competition in the diagnostic market and brought down the cost of diagnostic commodities from Rs 1,727 in 2020 to Rs 72 in 2021.
- Pradhan Mantri Ayushman Bharat Health Infrastructure Mission (PMABHIM) focuses on expediting the capacities of health institutions across all levels of care to strengthen infrastructure, surveillance, diagnosis, management, and research.
- Tapping on the gains, redressing deficiencies, and instituting innovations and best practices for preparedness is the way forward in creating a resilient and self-sufficient India.
Human Resources for Health (HRH)
- Since 2014, key strategies undertaken by the Government of India have resulted in increased availability of skilled HRH in the public health system.
- The country currently has over 1.07 lakh undergraduate seats for medical education. There has been a 67% increase in medical colleges, a 93% increase in undergraduate seats, and a 105% increase in postgraduate seats.
- Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs, chaired by the Prime Minister, has approved the establishment of 157 new nursing colleges in co-location with the existing medical colleges established since 2014. The step will add approximately 15,700 nursing graduates every year.
Immunization and Disease Control
- Universal Immunization Programme has converted immunization into a people's social movement.
- Through Mission lndradhanush, many additional vaccines were delivered through routine immunization services, improving the immunization coverage from 62% (2015-16) to 76.4% (2019-21).
- Additionally, consistent efforts to reduce the burden of communicable diseases have yielded 85.3% reduction in malarial cases between 2014 and 2021, and a decline in Japanese Encephalitis cases from 1661 in 2014 to 787 in 2021.
- Pradhan Mantri TB-Mukt Bharat Abhiyan reflects the citizen-centric policies of the Prime Minister, aiming to raise awareness about free-TB treatment available at Government health facilities. India remains committed to eliminating Tuberculosis by 2025.
- In line with the spirit of Jan Bhagidari (people's participation), the Government has introduced Ni-kshay 2.0, a unique platform that enhances patient support and community engagement.
- These reforms also leverage Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) opportunities and establish a pioneering global crowd funding model.
Mental Health and Well being
- The National Mental Health Survey of India highlighted a 70-92% treatment gap for various mental health disorders.
- Government introduced Tele-MANAS, the digital arm of the District Mental Health Programme. With 42 established Tele-MANAS cells, the initiative has already received over 1.5 lakh calls.
- Government-financed health insurance has experienced a substantial rise of 167%. Moreover, there has been a notable decline of 16 per cent points in out-of-pocket spending on health since FY 2013-14.
Acknowledging the Benefits of Traditional Medicines
- Recognising the effectiveness of traditional medicine in managing chronic conditions and promoting well-being, the Government has taken steps to integrate these practices into the mainstream healthcare system.
- This has led to the development of standardized protocols, evidence-based guidelines, and safe and effective traditional medicine formulations.
- The Ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy) is vital in promoting traditional medicine in India.
- It collaborates with allopathic institutions, research organisations, and healthcare professionals to facilitate an integrated approach to healthcare delivery.
- India's G20 Presidency is centered around a deep commitment to the people. The spirit of India's G20 Presidency is exemplified in the theme of 'One Earth, One Family, One Future; encapsulated in the ancient Sanskrit ethos of “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam”.
SPORTS BINDING THE NATION TOGETHER
- India had its best-ever Olympics in Tokyo 2020 – with 7 medals, including an Olympic Gold in athletics, which is a first in the history of India. We also had our best ever Paralympics and Deaflympics with 19 and medals, respectively. This was followed by the Thomas Cup win for the first time in 72 years, and the current World Boxing Champion, Nikhat Zareen, is from India.
- The govt has launched various schemes including the 'Khelo India Scheme', ' Target Olympic Podium Scheme', 'Fit India Movement', etc.
Regional Diversity Bridged by Sports: Khelo India
- In 2016, the Khelo India Scheme was envisaged by the Prime Minister. The scheme is the key to giving athletes from all across the country, a chance to showcase their sporting skills on a national platform and to be identified for further training.
- The scheme supports more than 2500 athletes with a scholarship of Rs 6.28 lakh each annually. The athletes are trained in state-of-the-art facilities, and are also given a monthly cash allowance of Rs 10,000.
- Khelo India athletes come from diverse geographic locations and different socio-economic backgrounds and train at the Khelo India Academies in various parts of the country.
- The concept of Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat is exemplified through these games. Commencing in 2018, a total of 8 editions of the Khelo India University Games and the Khelo India Youth
Games have taken place.
Sports Infrastructure Towards Nation Building: Khelo India Centres
- The launch of 1000 Khelo India Centres (KICs) in every district in the country with employment generation for local coaches has been a significant landmark in the sports ecosystem in India.
- The Central Government's partnership with various states has resulted in 31 Khelo India Centres of Excellence that are primed to be state-of-the-art training centres for senior and elite athletes with a focus on specific sporting disciplines.
- Besides, 266 Khelo India accredited academies, 500 private academies, and 27 adopted schools where Khelo India athletes train added to the strength of the sporting infrastructure.
- Close to 17,500 playfields have been geo- tagged so that parents can easily find a place for their children to play around their residential area.
Inclusivity Propelled by Sports
- Special provisions are made for women athletes, such as organising the Khelo India Women's Leagues to promote their participation in sports.
- Close to 50% of athletes in the Tokyo Olympics were women, and almost 50% of the medals were won by them – Mirabai Chanu, Lovlina Borgohain, and PV Sindhu.
- Constant efforts are on to ensure that sports can act as a catalyst to include youngsters from all parts of the country, with special emphasis on Jammu and Kashmir and the LWE-affected areas.
- There is also a special space of inclusion being created for divyang athletes. In June 2023, a contingent of 198 divyang Indian athletes participated in the Special Olympics Summer Games 2023 in Berlin.
- The Government extended financial support of Rs 7.7 crore towards the participation of the Indian contingent and also held a preparatory coaching camp at the Sports Authority of India's JLN Stadium, New Delhi to prepare for the world event.
A Fit India Inspired by Sports
- The PM envisioned the Fit India Movement in 2019 to make fitness a way of life for every citizen, not just for athletes or fitness experts.
- His clarion call of “Fitness Ki Dose, Adha Ghanta Roz”, echoed across the country making it a People's Movement.
- Be it the Fit India Freedom Run or the fit India quiz the interest in fitness has grown among all age groups.
- Fit India School Week is held every year, in which more than 2.5 lakh students have participated so far in various fitness-related activities.
Economic Growth Fuelled by Sports
- According to an Invest India report published in February 2023, India is today the third largest sports goods manufacturer in Asia.
- 60% of all sports goods manufactured by Indian companies are exported, and the industry generates employment for over 5 lakh people. The Indian sports-goods market is expected to grow to $6.6 billion by 2027 from $3.9 billion in 2020-21.
- The 44th FIDE Chess Olympiad, the U-17 FIFA Women's World Cup held in 2022, the AIBA World Boxing Championship, and the ISSF Shooting World Cup held in 2023 across various Indian cities are proof of the status that India enjoys today as an emerging sports superpower. Indeed, in the last 9 years, sports in India have come a long way. It is therefore not without reason that several elite international sports bodies have chosen India as the host country in recent years.
INDIAN ECONOMY HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND WAY FORWARD
- The 1990s marked a significant turning point for India's economy. The country faced macroeconomic imbalances during the late 1980s and early 1990s, prompting the government to introduce structural reforms in 1991. The government implemented policies to dismantle the license raj, encourage foreign direct investment, and promote privatisation. The exchange rate was made flexible, allowing for depreciation as necessary to maintain competitiveness. The rupee became fully convertible on the current account and partially convertible on the capital account.
- The real growth rates increased from an average of 5.5 per cent in the 1980s to 6.3 per cent between FY1993 and FY2000.
External trade experienced a significant boost, with the total goods and services trade-to-GDP ratio rising from 17 .2 per cent in 1990 to 30.6 per cent in 2000.
- Foreign direct investment was further liberalized in the early 2000s.
- The New Telecom Policy of 1999 catalysed the IT sector boom in India, generating widespread benefits for other sectors as well.
- The policy on disinvestment and privatization gained momentum during this period.
- Structural policies were formulated to address macroeconomic imbalances. The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act was passed to address the government's historically high combined gross fiscal deficit.
- While global growth averaged 4.8 per cent in 2003-2008, the Indian economy achieved an average growth rate of over 8 percent.
- Sustained momentum in domestic economic activity, improved corporate performance, a healthy investment climate, and favourable global liquidity conditions and interest rates resulted in substantial capital inflows to India from 2004 to 2008.
- Domestic credit growth, especially bank credit, doubled as a share of GDP.
- The government's economic policy focus since 2014 has been to restore India's growth potential by easing business conditions and significantly enhancing physical and digital infrastructure.
- Simplification of regulatory frameworks through reforms such as the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) and the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act (RERA) has enhanced the ease of doing business and thereby improved investor sentiment.
- RERA has transformed the real estate sector by making it more organised, resulting in increased new launches and sales of houses.
- Tax policy reforms, including the adoption of a unified Goods and Services Tax (GST), reduction in corporate and income tax rates, exemption of sovereign wealth funds and pension funds from taxes, removal of the Dividend Distribution Tax, and the abolishment of the retrospective tax, have reduced the tax burden on individuals and businesses.
- The implementation of GST has broadened the tax base, reduced compliance requirements, facilitated the free flow of goods across state borders, and contributed to the formalisation of the economy.
- The GST system has exhibited improved buoyancy compared to the pre-GST regime, with average monthly gross collections consistently rising from INR 0.9 lakh crore in FY18 to INR 1.5 lakh crore in FY23.
- Large-scale public spending has also been undertaken since 2014 to address the long- standing infrastructure gaps and logistics bottlenecks.
- The effective Capital Expenditure by the Union Government has risen from 2.8 per cent of GDP in 2013-14 to 3.8 per cent in 2022-23.
- Recognizing the need for consistent and long-term efforts to improve infrastructure in a country as vast as India, the government has established the National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP). This forward-looking approach to infrastructure investments projects around INR 111 lakh crore of investments spread over five years until 2024-25.
- Currently, more than 9,000 NIP projects, with a total investment of over INR 108 lakh crore, are at various stages of implementation across different sectors.
- Programmes such as 'Atmanirbhar Bharat' and 'Make in India' have aimed to enhance India's manufacturing capabilities and promote exports across various industries.
- Production Linked Incentives (PLIs) have been introduced to attract domestic and foreign investments, fostering the development of global champions in the manufacturing sector.
- The government has further liberalized the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy, with most sectors now open for 100% FDI under the automatic route.
- Decriminalizing minor economic offences under the Companies Act of 2013 has greatly improved the ease of doing business. As a result of this reform, over 1400 default cases have been resolved without resorting to court proceedings, and more than 400,000 companies have voluntarily rectified past defaults to avoid penalties.
- Initiatives such as the Emergency Credit Line Guarantee Scheme (ECLGS}, revision in the definition of MSMEs under the ambit of Atmanirbhar Bharat, the introduction of TReDS to address the delayed payments for MSMEs, the inclusion of Retail and Wholesale trades as MSMEs, and the extension of non-tax benefits for three years in case of an upward change in the status of MSME, have all contributed to the sector's resilience.
- Integrating technology and digital platforms has been a common theme throughout these reforms.
- Studies have shown that India's core digital economy has grown 2.4 times higher than the overall economic growth between 2014 and 2019.
- Digital infrastructure has facilitated the creation of digital identities, improved access to finance and markets, reduced transaction costs, and enhanced tax collection.
- Contextually relevant and appropriate economic reforms, considering India's demographic profile and understanding of strategic challenges – political and economic – that technological developments such as advances in Artificial Intelligence and energy transition motivated by climate change considerations pose for the country, will pave the way for bright and steady growth prospects for the country, leading up to 2047.
VISION FOR INDUSTRY
- According to a FICCI-McKinsey report, by 2047, a growing India is expected to become a high-income nation with six times its current per capita income and to create 60 crore jobs to gainfully employ its growing workforce.
- Achieving this potential will make India an approximately Rs 1500 lakh crore ($19 trillion) economy in real terms by 2047, with the economy growing at a real GDP growth rate of 7.7%.
- Recent policy reforms have created a favourable environment in which Industry can grow. These include the introduction of the GST, the launch of the National Single-Window System, and a steadily expanding production-linked incentive scheme, etc.
- The Centre's other key initiatives, like the PM-Gati Shakti and National Logistics Policy, have also provided a facilitating environment for India's manufacturing ecosystem to boom.
New-age Factory of the World: India's chance to shine amid shifts in global supply chains
- With the Covid-19 pandemic highlighting the challenges of concentrated supply chain companies
worldwide are looking for alternatives.
- India could capitalise on this emerging opportunity and capture an increased share of key global supply chains. India is well positioned to leverage Global Value Chains (GVC) for higher economic growth and job creation.
- Steps are being taken and the results are already evident. From just two mobile phone factories in 2014, India has now become the second-largest mobile phone producer in the world. In fact, India's exports of smartphones today are worth more than US$11 billion.
- The aim should be to further increase India's presence in five to six specific global value chains (e.g., electronics, chemicals, medical devices) by developing port-proximate clusters.
- Multi-modal logistics parks are being set up in several cities under the government's road-development programme, 'Bharatmala, and these could become world-class, efficient logistics zones for manufacturing.
Embracing Digital Revolution in Manufacturing
- As per a recent NASSCOM report, the Indian manufacturing industry spent between US$ 5.5 and US$ 6.5 billion on Industry-4.0 solutions in FY21.
- Government regulations and private sector investments are pushing Indian manufacturing to adopt digital technology.
- Technology grants and international joint ventures could help secure technology expertise that would help propel manufacturing into the digital future. The ongoing 5G rollout would also play a key role in their transformation to 'smart manufacturing.
- Support for skilling and upskilling initiatives will be the need of the hour for manufacturing MSMEs to advance in the future.
Leaping Towards Sustainable Manufacturing Future
- Manufacturing has a significant impact on environmental issues because it is a major source of GHG and other pollutants. The future of manufacturing is sustainability.
- Another critical reason for manufacturers to undertake initiatives in sustainability is their substantial financial benefits and global competitiveness.
- Through a number of initiatives, the Indian Government is enticing businesses to adopt sustainable manufacturing, including 'Zero Defect- Zero Effect, 'Digital India, and many others.
- To complement these initiatives, manufacturers across the value chain need to prioritise the creation of green alternatives.
- The industry should get together to help define a standard for 'green' labels and establish a robust auditing process for green products.
- India has inefficiencies in terms of the large amount of goods transitioning within an industrial value chain, as well as the high cost and lengthy time for the transition.
- The country is already solving these challenges with a variety of interventions, such as the Industrial Corridor Development Programme, the PM Gati Shakti National Master Plan, and the National Logistics Policy.
- Besides hard industrial infrastructure, Indian industry also needs widespread State sponsored urban infrastructure development to be able to capitalise on the window of opportunity provided by the strategic decoupling between China and the West.
- As we move ahead on the path towards India@100, the process of reforms will further gather pace and strengthen the foundation on which India will have a world-class industrial sector that is efficient, productive, sustainable, and will imbibe a major export orientation.
LEVERAGING TECHNOLOGY FOR ACCESSIBLE QUALITY EDUCATION
- Modern technologies like Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), Extended Reality (ER), Artificial Intelligence (AI), and Machine Learning (ML) have revolutionised education enhancing learning experiences. The National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020) also envisions sweeping reforms in the education sector through technology to create accessible, equitable, and high-quality education for all.
- The sudden push for online education was driven by the disruption caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. The availability of online classes, internet through fibre connectivity and DTH content delivery through satellites helped to ensure high-quality education delivered at home during this period.
National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL)
- NPTEL, started in 2005, provided high-quality recorded engineering lectures delivered by IIT professors. Subsequently, in 2008, Virtual labs were started to provide simulation-based experiments for all students.
Teacher training platforms
- The Amrita Virtual Interactive E-Learning World (A-VIEW), a collaboration between AMRITA University and the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), was established with the purpose of providing online training to educators.
- IIT Bombay and IIT Kharagpur launched the ‘Train 10,000 Teachers’ (T10kT) program, which focuses on augmenting the teaching skills of teachers in core engineering and science subjects.
- AICTE Training And Learning (ATAL) Academy was instituted to facilitate the dissemination of high-quality technical education across the nation.
- SWAYAM platform stands as the world’s largest online free e-learning portal, meticulously designed to realise the goals of accessibility, equity, and quality education across all educational tiers.
- National Internship Portal was established to foster connections between students and industries, including Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).
- The National Educational Alliance for Technologies (NEAT) scheme, implemented by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), aims to act as a bridge between ed-tech companies, academic institutions and students.
- Anuvadhani, an artificial intelligence-based translation tool developed by AICTE, is developed to bridge the language gap and provide equal learning opportunities to students across the country. It can translate text files, and enable speech-to-text typing, and editing.
- National Digital Library Project by IIT Kharagpur provides free access to digital books and documents.
Academic Bank of Credit (ABC):
- Initiated by the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, students can store their academic credits and credentials earned in Digilocker. It serves as a credit bank for students that allows them to accumulate, verify, transfer, and redeem their credit which ensures flexibility and enhances learning opportunities for students.
- The NEP 2020 aims to achieve a Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) of 100% in school education and 50% in higher education. Technology plays a pivotal role in achieving this goal by bridging the gap and ensuring access, upholding equity, maintaining quality, increasing affordability, and fostering accountability across the education sector.
ATAL INNOVATION MISSION BUILDING A HOLISTIC INNOVATION ECOSYSTEM
“The best way to foresee the future is to create it”. – Anonymous
What Is Innovation?
- Innovation is the process of creating value by applying novel solutions to meaningful problems. It is about creating new applications for an invention or an established technology.
- Innovation plays a critical role in shaping the economy of a country. Taking an economic view, the theory of growth suggests that the Total Output is defined as a function of
Labour, Capital, and Total Factor Productivity of economy.
- Simply put, total output, or GDP, is increasingly proportional to TFP (Total Factor of Production), where innovation, technology growth, and efficiency gains are the biggest sub- sections of TFP.
- The most developed nations of the world – the USA, UK, France, Germany, Japan, etc. – have traditionally been the most technologically innovative ones.
Atal Innovation Mission
- India established the National Innovation Foundation (NIF) under the Department of Science and Technology.
- In 2013, the Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy was launched. The Policy aspired to position India among the top five global scientific powers with the goal of establishing a strong and viable Science, Research,
and Innovation system for a High Technology-led path for India (SRISHTI).
- The Government of India, in 2016, set up the Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) under NITI Aayog. AIM's mandate has been to create a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in India.
Programme Pillars of the Atal Innovation Mission
- Atal Tinkering Labs (ATL)
- With a vision to Cultivate one million children in India as Neoteric Innovators, AIM has established ATLs in schools across India.
- ATL is a state-of-the-art space to foster curiosity and innovation in young minds between grades 6th and 12th. The ATLs provide an inhibited space where students create with the idea of “tod-fod-jod” – the liberty to create while innovating.
- The flagship initiatives of ATL, the ATL Marathon, and Tinkerpreneur, give the students a platform to create products and pitch them to the world as young business tycoons.
- The best students then get an opportunity to experience industry exposure through the Student Innovator Programme.
- Atal Incubation Centres (AIC)
- It aims to nurture innovative start-ups in their pursuit to become scalable and sustainable enterprises.
- It creates and supports cross-sectoral incubators. AICs have been operationalized in Higher Education Institutions – both government and private, research institutes, corporate bodies, etc.
- Atal Community Innovation Centre (ACIC)
- It is designed to create a thriving ecosystem of innovation and entrepreneurship in regions that have not yet been a part of the growing culture of innovation and lack the systems to support it.
- Atal New India Challenge (ANIC)
- It is a national initiative to seek, select, support, and nurture technology-based innovations that solve sectoral challenges of national importance and societal relevance.
- The primary goals of ANIC are to incentivize innovations in areas critical to India's development and growth – Education, Health, Water and Sanitation, Agriculture, Food Processing, Housing, Energy, Mobility, Space Applications, etc.
- Mentors of Change (MoC)
- Mentor India is a strategic nation-building voluntary initiative to engage leaders ('Mentors of Change') who can guide and mentor students in the 10,000+ Atal Tinkering Labs that AIM has established across India. Today, 6,000+ Mentors across the country are supporting the dream of AIM to nurture young minds. These mentors from across industry and academia volunteer their time regularly in one or more such labs.
- With India's growth story standing at an inflection point and its ambitious goal of USD 5 trillion by FY 2025, a well-nurtured innovation ecosystem is a must. India is taking rapid strides in nurturing its innovation ecosystem. Sustained efforts over the past decade have moved India in the Global Innovation Index ranking – from 57th in 2018 to 40th in 2022. India is delivering innovations at a global scale with deep impact; it houses 100+ unicorns and has given the world a stack of digital public goods like Aadhaar, UPI, and more.
INDIA'S G20 PRESIDENCY
- India took on the Presidency of the G20 in a tumultuous global environment. For a grouping that accounts for more than 80% of global GDP, 75% of global trade, and 60% of the world's population, this has been a moment to underscore its relevance.
- With a new international order in the making and a fluid global environment, India's credibility is at an all-time high.
- This is evident from facts such as Rising economic power, A nation that remains committed to upholding the rule of law and promoting global peace and security through its longstanding commitment to global multilateralism; Its growing ability to deliver global public goods.
- New Delhi was at the forefront of providing medical supplies and vaccines at the height of the Covid-19 pandemic.
Current State of Global Order
- The global order is passing through an inflection point with the balance of power in flux.
- The post World War order is truly over and, in its place, there is a vacuum that is causing turmoil all around.
- Major powers are internally focused, trying to cope with their domestic issues at the expense of their global obligations.
- The advent of Covid-19 accelerated the above trends as the world became more aware of the underlying fault lines and responded by first turning inward and then ushering in new models of engagement and disengagement.
- Older norms are out of favour, while consensus on new norms eludes the world. The crisis of multilateralism has been made worse by the lack of a broader representation of developing countries and emerging economies in multilateral institutions.
- Economic globalisation also came under stress. From 'let's trade and become friends, the mantra became 'let's trade among friends!
- De-globalisation has emerged as a credible option as nations moved towards decoupling and de-risking.
India’s Aim Of Global Leadership
- India's G20 leadership has sought to make the Global South the Centre point of global conversations.
- The theme India selected for its G20 presidency is Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam (The world is one family).
- During its year-long presidency, New Delhi, through different initiatives, has made an intense effort to showcase India's claim to global leadership.
- A visible dimension of this exercise is reflected in its participatory nature.
- While inaugurating the 17th Pravasi Bharatiya Diyas Convention in Indore in January 2023, PM Modi noted that India has to make the G20 not just a diplomatic event but a historical event of the people's participation.
- India has envisaged jan bhagidari (people's participation) in the G20 through various civic engagements and its hosting of more than 200 meetings, ranging across 50 cities and 32 working streams.
- Another significant aspect of this participatory diplomacy is the prioritisation of provinces and regions and the showcasing of cultures that weren't given due attention earlier.
- As a nation that wants to be a 'leading player' in the global order, India is keen to address the world's pressing issues through its leadership, including climate change, food security, health care, and technology.
- As part of this, New Delhi has highlighted issues that matter for emerging economies: digital public infrastructure, entrepreneurship and innovation, climate justice, and affordable access to health care.
- New Delhi has tried to revive global faith in the ability of multilateral formats to deliver. India@75 is well positioned to take on an ambitious role on the global stage, and its G20 presidency has underlined its credentials as a credible global interlocutor.
AGRICULTURE – A JOURNEY FROM SHORTAGE TO SURPLUS
- In the span of 75 years since India’s independence, its agricultural landscape has undergone a phenomenal transformation. From struggling with food shortages and depending on foreign aid, India has emerged as a self-sufficient nation in terms of food production and a significant player in the global agricultural arena.
The Green Revolution: From Scarcity to Surplus
- At the dawn of independence, India faced acute food scarcity, barely able to meet its population’s basic needs.
- The turning point came with the Green Revolution, catalyzed by the introduction of high-yielding and disease-resistant crop varieties.
- Scientist Dr. Norman Borlaug’s innovations in wheat varieties boosted yields, and coupled with government support under the leadership of doctor MS Swaminathan, led to record-breaking harvests.
- This surge in productivity, termed the Green Revolution, not only ensured food security but also paved the way for self-sufficiency and agricultural exports.
- India leads in sugar, ranks 2nd in rice (after China), and holds 14.14% global wheat production share in 2020.
International Year of Millets
- Recognizing the significance of millets, India celebrated the International Year of Millets in 2023, rebranding them as ‘Shree Anna’.
- With targeted strategies and government support, millet production has surged, aiding nutritional security.
- The cultivation of millets has soared, setting the stage for India to become a global hub for these nutrient-rich grains.
- The Yellow Revolution marked a breakthrough in oilseed production.
- Innovative cultivation practices and the introduction of advanced crop production technologies led to a dramatic increase in oilseeds output.
- India’s oilseed production grew from 108.30 lakh metric tons in 1985-86 to an impressive 400,000 million tons in 2022-23, establishing self-reliance in this crucial sector.
- In a similar vein, the White Revolution addressed India’s milk crisis. With per capita milk availability dwindling, the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) chaired by Verghese Kurein launched Operation Flood in the 1970s.
- This initiative established a network of village-level milk cooperatives, modern processing plants, and a seamless supply chain.
- India has been a global leader in milk production for over a decade, with a total production of around 22 crore tonnes in the year 2021-22.
- Post-independence efforts in the fisheries sector resulted in the Blue Revolution.
- India transformed into the second-largest fish-producing country globally, with policies promoting both marine and inland fisheries.
- The Blue Revolution not only boosted fish production but also elevated India’s status as a leading seafood exporter.
- Rising to become the third-largest egg producer globally, India’s poultry industry has added another feather to its agricultural cap.
- As India’s agricultural success story continues, challenges such as climate change, resource depletion, and productivity constraints must be addressed. Initiatives like the National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture and Agri-Tech Infrastructure Fund focus on sustainable practices and technology integration.
- Digital tools, precision agriculture, and market linkages are redefining modern farming. From financial support to crop insurance and institutional credit, these initiatives empower farmers.
- The National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) is revolutionizing agricultural marketing, ensuring fair prices and market access. India’s agricultural journey is a testament to scientific innovation, political will, and the unwavering toil of farmers.
- Rising from self-reliance, Indian agriculture is now moving forward to become a global powerhouse of agriculture.
SWEET REVOLUTION: A BOOM IN HONEY PRODUCTION
- India has witnessed the exemplary fast- paced growth of beekeeping as an agro- based subsidiary occupation. Today, India produces approximately 70000 metric tonnes of honey annually from all four species of honey bees.
- In India, beekeeping is practiced in mountains, foothills, forests, agricultural lands, mangrove forests, etc. The technique involved in beekeeping varies from region to region. The main harvest is from Apis dorsta, Apiscerana, and Apis mellifera.
- Today, beekeeping is an important, sustainable, and integral agricultural activity under the rural development programme in India since it provides nutritional, economic, and ecological security and balance.
- Apiculture is the practice of keeping and managing honeybees for the production of honey and
- The product is also used for manufacturing other products, such as beeswax, royal jelly, propolis, and-pollen.
- The components of apiculture include bee colonies, beekeepers, beekeeping equipment, and the products produced from the bee colonies.
- Bees also play a crucial role in pollination, which is essential for growing crops and fruits.
- In comparison to other forms of agriculture, apiculture requires less land and water and has a lower carbon footprint.
Benefits of Honey
- Honey is rich in nutrients and antioxidants, antibacterial properties, and can play a role in diabetes management as part of a balanced diet.
- It plays a role in many home remedies and alternative medicine treatments. India has good potential for beekeeping and to become a major honey-exporting nation.
- Honey production provides a sustainable income source, requiring only low-cost investment and using the natural resource base.
- The major geographical regions facilitating beekeeping development are classified into the Southern peninsular region, the Northeast region, Indo Gangetic plains, and the Northern Hill region.
- Other apiculture products such as royal jelly, beeswax, pollens, etc., are also used extensively in different sectors like pharmaceuticals, food, beverage, beauty, and others.
- Sweet Revolution is aimed at promoting apiculture, popularly known as 'beekeeping’ for accelerating the production of quality honey and other related products.
- Scaling up beekeeping will increase farmers' income, generate employment, ensure food security and bee conservation, and increase crop productivity and pollination.
- To provide a booster shot to Sweet Revolution, the Government launched the National Beekeeping and Honey Mission (NBHM), for the overall promotion and development of scientific beekeeping in mission mode.
- The scheme is being implemented through the National Bee Board (NBB) as a Central Sector Scheme.
- The main objective of NBB is the overall development of Beekeeping by promoting Scientific Beekeeping in India, increasing the productivity of crops through pollination and increasing honey production for increasing the income of beekeepers/farmers.
- The Madhu Kranti Portal for ensuring the source of honey was launched in April 2021. More than 10,000 beekeepers and honey societies/farms/companies with 16 lakh honey bees are
registered with National Bee Boards and linked to the Madhu Kranti Portal.
- Concentrated efforts through NBHM increased honey production by about 1,33,200 Metric Tonnes in 2021-2022.
- India has exported 74413 Metric Tonnes of natural honey to the World, worth Rs 1221 crore during 2020-2021. As a result, India is among the world's top five honey producers
- An organised and tech-driven bee-farming sector is an excellent way to generate employment opportunities, through skill-building projects. It will help attain Sustainable Development Goals 1 (No Poverty), 2 (Zero Hunger), 3 (Good Health and Well-Being), and 15 (Biodiversity and Vibrant Ecosystem).
- UPSC CSE 2023 Mains Essay Paper Model Answers
- A Norwegian perspective of India’s digital journey – Leveraging Digital Public Goods to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals: Lessons from India | 15 November 2023 | UPSC Daily Editorial Analysis
- Enhancing representation, for a just electoral system – Strengthening India’s Democracy: A Path to Enhanced Representation and Accountability | 14 November 2023 | UPSC Daily Editorial Analysis
- Revamping the criminal justice system to fit the bill – Analysis of the Government’s Proposed Bills to Replace Core Criminal Laws | 11 November 2023 | UPSC Daily Editorial Analysis
- Chip off the block – PLI Schemes for Semiconductor Manufacturing | 10 November 2023 | UPSC Daily Editorial Analysis
- Taiwan, a Malacca blockade and India’s options – India’s Strategic Dilemma in the Strait of Malacca | 9 November 2023 | UPSC Daily Editorial Analysis
- The problem with the ‘70 hours a week’ line – Counterproductive Push for a 70-Hour Workweek in India | 8 November 2023 | UPSC Daily Editorial Analysis
- More light, less sound – A Festival of Lights Should Not Become a Festival of Noise: A Call for Effective Noise Pollution Control | 7 November 2023 | UPSC Daily Editorial Analysis
- Giving the urban Indian a better life – Urgent Need for Sustainable Urbanization in India | 6 November 2023 | UPSC Daily Editorial Analysis
- The IITs are overcommitted, in crisis – Looming Crisis in India’s IIT System | 4 November 2023 | UPSC Daily Editorial Analysis
- UPSC CSE 2022 Mains GS 1 Paper Model Answers
- Model Answers for UPSC CSE 2021 GS 2 Paper
- SPR 2023 | SPECIES IN NEWS
- UPSC CSE 2023 Mains GS 2 Paper Model Answers
- Model Answers for UPSC CSE 2020 GS 2 Paper
- UPSC CSE 2023 Mains GS 1 Paper Model Answers
- PDS: objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping
- Land Revenue System during British rule in India
- Govt policies & interventions for development in various sectors, and issues arising out of their design and implementation
- UPSC CSE 2022 Mains GS 2 Paper Model Answers