Yojana Magazine: June 2022

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India has seen 3 Industrial Revolutions and is currently in the phase of the Fourth Industrial Revolution which has penetrated the lives of nearly each and every individual today. The Fourth Industrial Revolution is a technology based revolution involving the use of Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain, Quantum Computing, Internet of Things, Cloud Computing etc. The technologies provide a myriad of opportunities in  every sphere be it related to healthcare, finance, employment, education or even governance. The technology has been bridging the gap between governance and Good Governance by enhancing quality service delivery, transparency, accountability and responsiveness through various initiatives such as Digital India Mission, Adhaar Enabled Payments, National Digital Health Mission and others. 


With the advent of Industrial Revolution 4, terms such as Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Internet of Things have not remained just technical terms bothering only the data scientists and engineers, however knowingly or unknowingly people have made the technologies an essential part of their life.


  • It is like a peer-to-peer transaction system.
  • Blockchain technology is a decentralised system without the need of a central authority such as RBI in case of India.
  • It is a secure platform for financial transactions
  • Cryptocurrency is an example of blockchain technology.

El Salvador has become the first country to give legal status to Bitcoin and is attempting to build the world's first Bitcoin City.



Under a Non Fungible Token system, a kind of digital certificate is issued that such an original thing, unique in the world, is owned by you. This digital certificate cannot be tampered with.NFTs can be associated with physical assets and virtual or digital assets. The digital certificate is not in the form of writing but in the form of a digital image, video, etc. E.g. Jack Dorsey, Founder of Twitter, sold the first tweet he ever posted through NFT for USD 2.9 million.



The Internet of Things means connecting various things of the world to the internet. The devices range from day-to-day objects- household appliances, cars, etc connected to the internet via embedded devices and seamless communication.

            For example: Smart Phone connected to the smart watch is an example of IOT.




  • Science and Technology advancement in the world has been attaining new heights day by day. With the technology attaining its pace, our life has become easier and stress free. Metaverse is one of the examples of such technological feat. The prevalence of this technology was witnessed in a wedding reception in Tamil Nadu.
  • Dinesh SP and Janganandhini Ramaswamy hosted their Hogwarts-themed Metaverse wedding reception on February 6 and managed to get the bride’s late father bless them as well. Couple was also joined by 6,000 people from around the world in their virtual reception. It was first of its kind event in Asia.
  • The bride’s father who passed away last year was visually brought back as digital avatar. He greeted everybody for attending the marriage and also blessed the couple.
  • Photos and videos of the event have been doing the rounds on social media.

Thus metaverse means a parallel universe present in the digital world that contains most of the things that exist in our physical world. Accessing this virtual world requires the Internet and digital devices, just like you access a video game. You present yourself as a digital person in the game.



  • Quantum Computing is said to be not less than a revolution in the field of computing owing to its infinite power since quantum computing can perform calculations million times faster than a normal computer.
  • Quantum Computer adopts QUBITS rather than binary digits(0,1) used by traditional computers. Its capacity is tens of million times more than traditional computers.
  • Quantum Computing can prove to be a great boon to humanity.
  • To boost quantum computing in the country, the government allocated Rs 8000 crore for Quantum Computing in the 2020 Financial Budget.



Artificial Intelligence means embedding machines with human like intelligence so that the machines are able to learn, analyse, think, understand, solve problems, make decisions, etc similar to human beings. Voice to text conversion has been possible because of artificial intelligence.



  • All the technologies like AI, IOT, Virtual Reality would have not been possible without the cloud computing since the million of tonnes of data generated by these technologies need a huge amount of storage.
  • The cloud acts as a storage for such a huge amount of data. Cloud computing implies using the resources available on the internet on your computers or devices.
  • The complete infrastructure of I.T., hardware and software can be accessed through cloud computing.
  • Clouds can be of 3 types:
    • Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS).
    • Software as a Service(SaaS).
    • Platform as a Service(PaaS).




The current age of digitisation has interlinked every sector and is a key driver of a successful economy and a progressive and inclusive society. In India, Aadhaar continues to play a major role in providing a unified national digital identity framework.

How technology has penetrated almost each and every area:

  • Combat Socio-Economic Issues
  • Speed up Court trials
  • Agriculture
  • Health
  • Education
  • Internal Security
  • Combating Terrorism
  • Secure Communication
  • Disaster Management through better prediction
  • Computing
  • Simulation
  • Healthcare
  • Cryptography
  • Imaging
  • Push to hardware industries
  • Reduce dependence on imports
  • Logistic Solutions
  • Autonomous and remotely piloted vehicles
  • Advanced Communication Technologies and its security
  • Adoption of 5G
  • Penetration of broadband internet to remotest areas
  • Tele-health, remote learning
  • Cyber Security
  • Secure Cryptography Solutions
  • Decentralised Financing
  • Sovereign Digital Currencies
  • Advancement in areas such as
    • Synthetic DNA
    • Development of Vaccines
    • Gene Editing
    • Gene Sequencing
    • Biosensors
    • 4D Printing and Tissue Engineering
  • Boost to Agri-Food Technologies
    • Sustainable and remunerative agriculture
    • Climate resilient farming
    • HYV seeds
  • Climate and Environmental Conservation



  • Aadhaar is the world's largest Digital Identity Platform with a clear set of development objectives.
  • Billions of authentication transactions already being performed on it has proved its reliability, robustness and security to the entire International community.
  • Most trusted ID held by almost 1/6th of population of the world residing in India
  • Around 99.9% of the adult population is already enrolled in it.
  • Approximately 1.33 billion Aadhaar Card have been generated till date.
  • Over 600 million updates have been done by the residents.
  • Over 70 billion Aadhaar authentications have been done till date


  • UNIQUENESS – ensuring one person one ID
  • Online Verification and KYC to enable digital transactions
  • Not requiring expensive credentials such as smartcards, etc.

All this has been possible due to smart use of cutting edge technologies such as:

  • Multimodal Biometrics
  • Distributed Computing
  • BI/Analytics
  • Mobile Apps
  • Cloud Computing
  • Use of Secure QR code and offline e-KYC for offline verification of Aadhaar
  • Virtual ID,Aadhaar Lock, Biometric Lock
  • Integration with Digilocker
  • AI/ML
  • Inspection Portal

Blockchain based Identity Solutions, IOT, Confidential Computing, AI based fraud Analytics – Research is underway in these newer technologies.

Technology Innovation in Authentication

Aadhaar authentication based digital payments such as those in Direct Benefit Transfer(DBT), social welfare delivery such as PDS, last mile banking have been possible due the ability of Aadhaar to  be authenticated anytime and from anywhere through:

  • Face Authentication
  • Iris-based Aadhaar Authentication
  • Fingerprint Image Record Authentication

Aadhaar has a multilayered secure architecture. UIDAI-CIDR is ISO 27001 certified for Information Security and ISO 27701 for privacy protection. UIDAI has always remained abreast with latest advancements in technologies.




  • The Economic Survey 2021-22 report said the number of new recognised startups have increased to over 14,000 in 2021-22 from only 733 in 2016-17.
  • Delhi has replaced Bangalore as the startup capital of India
  • Over 5,000 recognised startups were added in Delhi, while 4,514 startups were added in Bangalore between April 2019 to December 2021. With a total of 11,308 startups, Maharashtra has the highest number of recognised startups.
  • With a total of 11,308 startups, Maharashtra has the highest number of recognised startups
  • “India had a record number of start-ups (44) reach unicorn status in 2021,” said the Economic Survey.
  • As a result, India has become the third largest startup ecosystem in the world after the US and China.


  • Deep-tech startups are those whose business models are based on high-tech innovation in engineering or significant scientific advances.
  • India lacks behind developed countries in deep tech startups which constitue less than 1% of the number of startups
  • In India, where only top 25% of 130 crores of population benefit from the fruits of technological progress, the remaining 75% population are substantially bypassed. One of the reasons being costly high-tech services whereas the average per capita income of 75% population being merely USD 100.
  • This grave problem requires a solution which lies in becoming Atmanirbhar in technology to solve our challenging problems.


  • Deep tech startups arise from research based, disruptive innovations from STEM labs of academic/research institutions and solve hard problems and challenges.
  • Some examples are
    • recycling sewage to get clean water at an affordable cost.
    • a low-cost solution at scale for curing blindness
    • affordable solutions for treating diseases such as diabetes, dementia, cancer etc.
    • creating an alternative to Lithium-ion batteries.
    • Low cost satellite launching systems.

Major problems that deep tech have vis-a-vis other startups:

  • Deep tech startups need a longer gestation for development than other startups
  • Deep tech startups require different types of inputs – they require more capital, specialised talent, and expert knowledge in more than one domain, to develop and validate a science-based innovation to the point where it is acceptable to commercial investors.
  • A deep tech startup follows a different development path than other startups.

Therefore deep tech takes more time and capital to develop upto where commercial investors find them acceptable.

India has created few deep tech startups over the past decade, whose impact has been overwhelmingly positive.


There is a need to create an enabling environment for the establishment and growth of deep tech startups. Unfortunately, very few researchers and startup founders in India conduct a Robust Customer Delivery Exercise. By linking development grants/seed investment programmes for deep tech startups with a Robust Customer Delivery Exercise, we can create in India a significant amount of deal flow of robust and curated deep tech startups into incubators and the ecosystem.






  • India- Ranked 8th in the top 10 countries by AI patent families ahead of Russia and France.
  • According to a report 'AI Enabled Saas: The Next Frontier for Global SaaS Startups from India', AI could generate over 9,00,000 white collar jobs and 3.6 million indirect jobs by 2030.
  • India has over 1,300 Global Capability Centres(GCC).


  • The government expenditure on AI and Machine Learning has steadily increased with expected growth at a CAGR of 39% over the period 2019-2025 to reach USD 11,781.9 million in 2025.
  • As per NITI Aayog, AI has the potential to add USD 1trillion to Indian economy by 2035.
  • NITI Aayog released a National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence #AIforAll in 2018
  • The paper aims at enhancing and empowering human capabilities to address challenges of Access, Affordability and Efficiency in endeavouring to scale Made-in-India Artificial Intelligence solutions for the benefit of the developing and emerging economies.
  • Launch of initiatives such as Atal Innovation Mission, Empowered Group-6,RAISE 2020 Summit.

To remove bottlenecks and complexities in AI driven processes and standardisation of AI, India's AI Standardization Committee of the Department of Telecommunication(DoT) released a draft framework on the India Artificial Intelligence Stack.

  • The stack is divided into 6 layers – 5 main horizontal layers and 1 vertical layer.
  • Each layer catering to a specific purpose ranging from information gathering and storage to security and governance.

Benefits of AI Stack:

  • Secure data storage and data privacy
  • Easy Interface
  • Protection of Digital Rights
  • Open API Integration 
  • Trustworthiness
  • Ethical Standards
  • Usage of Public Key Infrastructure

The stack ensures creation of a common data controller including multi cloud scenarios.
Through this the Government aims to provide a balanced playground for institutions to accelerate research and development in AI and ensure speedy adoption of AI across the value chain.

AI Currently in Use:

  • In promoting digital health
  • Amplifying digital financial transactions
  • In Telangana – AI is helping authenticate pensioners who are alive and using basic images and information to help validate recipients.
  • Ministry of Corporate Affairs is using AI to simplify corporate filings 
  • AI is being promoted at the school level to encourage new talent in this sphere


India sees AI and ML as the next transformative process to reform its economy and give it greater depth and weed out irregularities. India being the generator of vast democratic data needs effective AI and ML to use the data to its advantage.In India, AI and ML are starting to be used in governance to give depth to the country's democratic process. From education to defence, healthcare to e-commerce, there is hardly any area where this impact isn't starting to become rapidly visible.



The era of pandemic has made us realise the role of digitisation and technology in education sector. The basic fundamental right to education would have been completely shattered had technology not intervened in the sector. The University Grants Commission has laid emphasis on the application of modern teaching techniques, which include hybrid mode. AI can fill the quality gap as highlighted in the New Education Policy,2020.

AI and ML can play a major role in education sector. Nowadays, many queries relating to the academic field are answered by virtual assistance with AI capabilities like Google Assistant, Alexa and Siri. Our education system requires quality and wide geographical coverage which can be made possible with the help of incorporating AI technologies.


    • Assist human teachers in delivering their lectures to students
    • Clear students' doubts.
    • Make atmosphere interesting.
    • Personal attention to each student
    • Bridge the gap by recognising learning ability of each student
    • Personalize flexible teaching pattern
    • Solve doubts of students outside the classroom
    • Timely response
    • Minimise time waste by AI answering FAQs
    • Replicate teachers' grading pattern with the help of past data
    • Help in speedier evaluation of papers.
    • OMR is a great example of enhanced efficiency and timely evaluation
    • Checks plagiarism
    • Help teachers in completing repetitive tasks such as rescheduling classes, curriculum and content development, marking attendance, grading, etc.
    • Provide instructions to students.
    • High quality content from varied sources can be smartly created by AI
    • Generate and update the contents of lessons
    • Keep information upto date.
    • Break down the barriers of communication between various regional areas using deep learning networks to translate speech into text into different languages.
    • Access to quality education


AI finds its role in not only imparting education but also in administrative tasks. AI has broken the barriers of accessibilty, health, environment, language etc that were hindering the process of education. The quality of education system can be highly improved by incorporating AI to various educational activities since a well educated youth can make a better India.



What Is an NFT?

An NFT is a digital asset that represents real-world objects like art, music, in-game items and videos. They are bought and sold online, frequently with cryptocurrency, and they are generally encoded with the same underlying software as many cryptos.

Although they’ve been around since 2014, NFTs are gaining notoriety now because they are becoming an increasingly popular way to buy and sell digital artwork. A staggering $174 million has been spent on NFTs since November 2017.

How Does an NFT Work?

  • NFTs exist on a blockchain, which is a distributed public ledger that records transactions. You’re probably most familiar with blockchain as the underlying process that makes cryptocurrencies possible.
  • Specifically, NFTs are typically held on the Ethereum blockchain, although other blockchains support them as well.
  • An NFT is created, or “minted” from digital objects that represent both tangible and intangible items, including:
    • Art
    • GIFs
    • Videos and sports highlights
    • Collectibles
    • Virtual avatars and video game skins
    • Designer sneakers
    • Music
  • Even tweets count. Twitter co-founder Jack Dorsey sold his first ever tweet as an NFT for more than $2.9 million.
  • Essentially, NFTs are like physical collector’s items, only digital. So instead of getting an actual oil painting to hang on the wall, the buyer gets a digital file instead.
  • They also get exclusive ownership rights. That’s right: NFTs can have only one owner at a time. NFTs’ unique data makes it easy to verify their ownership and transfer tokens between owners. The owner or creator can also store specific information inside them. For instance, artists can sign their artwork by including their signature in an NFT’s metadata.



The banking sector in India has largely benefitted from the latest technologies. Due to the coordinated efforts of states, digitisation in the banking sector has started taking place at a faster pace which has helped in efficient and time bound service delivery.


  • Long queues at the bank are a thing of past.
  • People carry their banks in their pockets and can electronically transfer the money in minutes.
  • Technology in banking sector has made citizens self-reliant.
  • After liberalisation in 1991, the era of competition and providing the best facilities to the customers started in the banking sector.
  • HSBC, the first private foreign bank in India, opened the first ATM in Mumbai in 1987.
  • ICICI bank was the first bank to introduce net banking in India.
  • Central Bank of India was the first to offer a credit card facility in India. 


  • ATM cards, Internet, Credit Cards have made the debit and credit of money easy
  • Banking facilities on mobile phones
  • Electronic Fund Transfer has taken over paper fund transfer
  • Steps taken by the government to use banking technology:
    • Digital India Mission and Payment System
    • Rupay and Kisan Credit Card enabled farmers to engage in cashless transactions
    • EVM chip-based Kisan Cards issued by NABARD
    • Direct Benefit Transfer to directly transfer the benefits of social security schemes.
    • Establishment of Payments bank by RBI


Banks have launched different iOS and Android phone Apps. Using mobile banking, one can do everything- fund transfer, getting the bank settlements, mobile recharge and train or hotel booking directly through the bank's app.


Today the facility of core banking solution is being provided all over the country by commercial banks and cooperative banks. As a result banking has made life easier.


Robotic Process Automation

  • With the rapid growth of digital economy, the amount of unstructured data processed by the banks in increasing
  • Robotic processes combined with cognitive thinking help in making quality decisions by predicting customers' actions.
  • Smart virtual assistants are helping customers by helping banking transactions and providing relevant information.
  • Robotic process automation uses bots to do repetitive tasks without human intervention in a more efficient manner.

Data Analytics

Banking sector makes informed decision with actionable insights in real time, face market competition, understand future launchable products and ensure customers' satisfaction.

API Platform

  • API banking technology makes it possible for banks to digitize their services, and enables fintechs and banks to work together.
  • API, or application programming interface, is basically software that acts as an intermediary between other pieces of software
  • For banks, these benefits make it easier to provide a higher quality digital experience to a larger spectrum of customers. Meanwhile, fintechs that connect with banks are able to back their services with FDIC-insured banking infrastructure.
  • Banking APIs also allow banks and fintechs alike to embed their services in non-financial apps.

Cyber Security

  • As the world is being increasingly connected digitally, it has also opened up entry points for cybercriminals; therefore, Cybersecurity in digital banking is the need of the hour.
  • There have been breaches of data of technologically savvy banks.
  • Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting electronic systems like computers etc. and data from malicious attacks.
  • It is also called Information technology security or electronic information security.
  • Cybersecurity means the body of technologies and practices designed to protect networks, devices etc. from attack, damage from any unauthorized access.
  • The primary purpose of Cybersecurity in digital banking is to protect the customer’s assets. As people go cashless, more and more activities or transactions are done online. People use their digital money like credit cards and debit cards for transactions which require to be protected under Cybersecurity.
  • Cybercrimes in digital banking not only affects the customer, but it also affects the banks while they attempt to recover the data.
  • The banks may require spending a considerable amount of money to recover the data or information.

Cloud Computing                                                                                                           

Cloud computing is used in banks for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM): Banks use cloud-based CRM systems to manage customer data and interactions. This allows financial institutions to keep track of all customer interactions, regardless of location or time of day. The right cloud strategies also make it easier for banks to provide personalized service based on customer needs and preferences.
  • Fraud Detection: Banks use the cloud for fraud detection and prevention by analyzing large amounts of data from multiple sources. This helps financial institutions detect suspicious activity before it causes any damage.
  • Data Analysis: Banks are increasingly using the cloud for advanced analytics in order to gain insights into customer behavior patterns and trends. By understanding how customers interact with financial products, banks can create new offerings that meet their needs better than ever before.

Benefits of Using Cloud Technologies in the Banking Sector

  • Improved customer experience
  • Reduced costs
  • Faster processing speeds
  • Greater scalability
  • Enhanced security
  • Compliance with regulations


Nowadays, people hesitate to stand in long queues and complete their banking operations due to hectic schedules. Thus, people highly prefer mobile banking, net banking, and trend chatbot banking. With the help of a chatbot for banking, the customers can perform any financial transactions without much hassle through text or voice. Additionally, due to chatbots, customer satisfaction has improved a lot.



There is a need to strengthen digitisation in banking sector in order to enhance public service delivery and a cover in case of pandemic such as COVID-19.



The rollout of the Ayushman Bharat scheme to provide Healthcare Insurance to a large chunk of population of India enshrines to accelerate India's march toward achieving Universal Health Coverage(UHC) as listed in the National Health Policy of 2017.


  • As of 1 April 2022, Ayushman Bharat PM-JAY in alliance with Sate health schemes covers a beneficiary base of more than 14 crore families .
  • Almost 18 crore individuals have been identified under the scheme and have been provided with the Ayushman card.
  • AB-JAY has facilitated almost 3.28 crore hospitalisations, providing treatment worth Rs 37,600 crores.
  • All this has been achieved in a little over 3.5 years and amidst the greatest global pandemic in recent times.


  • Covers treatment for various medical specialties like oncology, neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, etc .
  • Upto Rs 5 lackhs per beneficiary family.
  • Pre and Post hospitalisation expenses.
  • Health benefits also made portable across the country.
  • People from the remotest villages can seek treatment at the most advanced healthcare facilities in cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore.


  • Marginalised section of society as per SECC database covered under the scheme.
  • Ensures gender-specific equity.
  • Gender parity has been achieved under AB PM-JAY.
  • Women account for approximately 50% of Ayushman card generated using the NHA IT platform.


  • Under the PM-JAY, both the public and private hospitals have been empanelled for providing healthcare services.
  • Reduces the burden on tertiary care facilities in the public sector.
  • Public hospitals equally reimbursed for their services and at the same rates as private hospitals.


  • The National Health Authority has launched a new version of the Health Benefit Package, 2022, under the Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana, adding 365 new procedures which took the total to 1,949.
  • With Health Benefit Package, 2022, differential pricing is being introduced under the scheme based on the type of city and level of care.
  • The National Health Authority also announced the rollout of the new initiative of patient classification systems through ICD-11 (International classification of disease) and International Classification of Health Intervention for Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY).
  • Another highlight was the pilot launch of Diagnosis Related Grouping (DRG) in Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Kerala, Maharashtra and Meghalaya. AB-PMJAY will be the first insurance scheme in India to provide a payment mechanism through DRG.



Awareness generation and beneficiary identification drives are necessary to make the scheme a success and hence under Aapke Dwar Ayushman, a grassroot network of frontline healthcare workers, Gram Panchayat Officials and village based digital entrepreneurs were used to undertake door-to-door mobilisation of beneficiaries across communities. 

AB PM-JAY will drastically reduce the Out of Pocket expenditure of the citizens which can be put to some other productive venture. It has the potential to catapult India into the top countries of the world in terms of the 3As of Accessibility, Affordability and Availability. 



The field of medicine has also not been left untouched by the benefits that the latest technologies offer. Medicines play a major role in maintaining sustainable healthcare. High end technologies such as AI, Robotics, 3D printing, data science find its presence in almost all the specialties of the medical field.

  • Augmented, Virtual and mixed reality are all technologies which find applications in not only diagnostics and therapeutics but also in imparting medical education .
  • AR finds its application in Operation Theatres and helps surgeons to get better visual projections of vital life saving operation fields.
  • VR can be applied to create simulated environments in treatment protocols in specialties like Psychiatry.
  • Mixed Reality offers cutting edge technology in medical education tools.
  • Cybernetic organisms(Cyborgs) will help create Mini Super Human Powers in selective sensory functions like vision and hearing.
  • 3D prints applied in medicine can be used to design anything from a tablet or a capsule in desired shape and size to implant stents and prosthetics.


  • Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials, or radiopharmaceuticals, to examine organ function and structure.
  • Nuclear medicine imaging is a combination of many different disciplines. These include chemistry, physics, mathematics, computer technology, and medicine.
  • This branch of radiology is often used to help diagnose and treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease, such as thyroid cancer.
  • Because X-rays pass through soft tissue, such as intestines, muscles, and blood vessels, these tissues are difficult to visualize on a standard X-ray, unless a contrast agent is used.
  • This allows the tissue to be seen more clearly. Nuclear imaging enables visualization of organ and tissue structure as well as function.
  • The extent to which a radiopharmaceutical is absorbed, or “taken up,” by a particular organ or tissue may indicate the level of function of the organ or tissue being studied.
  • Thus, diagnostic X-rays are used primarily to study anatomy. Nuclear imaging is used to study organ and tissue function.


  • 3D printing has revolutionalised treatment in patients with bone loss due to severe trauma, tumours, infections, etc.
  • 3D printing can also produce specialised polymer wears to aid people with neurologic illness.
  • Genomic sequencing can lead to early tumour detection, identifying implant-associated infections and specific targeted treatment.
  • Robotic surgery has induced perfection in the positioning of implants in complex anthroplasties that has largely helped in longevity.
  • Advanced antimicrobial nanotechnologies are poised to treat resistant orthopedic infections more effectively.


  • AI technology is used to:
    • improve the image quality with low radiation dosage
    • provide diagnostic accuracy
    • enhance workforce efficiency
    • alleviate radiologist burnout
    • reduce turn around time
    • handle large patient volumes
    • provide alerts to the doctors on their mobile phones
  • Dimensional Printing, Cinematic Rendering, Virtual Reality(VR) and Augmented Reality(AR) – provide accurate anatomic and functional detail that guide compex cardiac procedures and serve as an educational tool.


  • Novel devices such as drug-eluting stents, drug coated balloons, cryoplasty balloons, cutting balloons and focal pressure balloons have improved patency and reduced or modified the anatomy of the plaque.
  • The advent of IVUS(Intravascular Ultrasound)- the best technology to demonstrate the anatomy of artery wall and plaque morphology tailors the treatment of vascular diseases and assess the completeness of treatment.

Thus advanced technologies will not  only save millions of lives but also work towards ensuring longevity.

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