Most Important Topics for UPSC Mains 2023

Please Share with maximum friends to support the Initiative.

General Studies I

Art and Culture

  1. Ashoka's Rock Edicts
  2. Adi Shankaracharya – News Link
  3. Cave Paintings
  4. All Culture related initiatives under Azadi Amrit Mahotsav – Link1 Link2
  5. Guru Tegh Bahadur
  6. Classical Dance – Kathak
  7. Statue of Equality and Ramanujacharya
  8. Madhvacharya
  9. Indian Language & Literature
  10. Science and Technology in Ancient India

Modern India

  1. Unsung Women Freedom Fighters
  2. Growth of Revolutionary Activities
  3. Indian National Congress: Aims, Objectives
  4. Emergence of Gandhi in Indian Struggle for Independence
  5. Socio-Religious Reform Movements – link0 link1 link2
  6. Dayanand Saraswati & Arya Samaj
  7. Important Governors General and Viceroys of British India
  8. Timeline of British Administration in India (Acts)
  9. RIN mutiny
  10. Centralisation & Decentralisation dilemma after 1858

World History

  1. Colonialism and Decolonization
  2. Russian Revolution
  3. French Revolution
  4. American Revolution
  5. Political Philosophies (WH)
  6. Industrial Revolution


  1. Salient Features of Indian Society and Diversity of India
    1. Importance of mother-tongues
    2. Caste System in India
    3. Tradition of Interdependence
    4. Forms Of Diversity In India
  2. Effects of Globalization on Indian Society
    1. Impact of the Internet on Indian Society
    2. Anti-Globalization Movement
    3. New Localism
  3. Communalism, Regionalism and Secularism
  4. Urbanization: Problems and their Remedies
    1. Smart Cities Mission
    2. Analysing the links between urban planning and disasters
    3. Trends and Patterns of Urbanization
  5. Population and Associated Issues
  6. Role of Women and Women’s Organizations
    1. The importance of women-led digital solutions


  1. Evolution of Oceans & Continents
  2. Landslides
  3. Forest Fires
  4. Monsoon Floods
  5. Urban Floods
  6. Increasing number of tropical cyclones in Arabian Sea
  7. Atlantic Meridional Overturning
  8. MJO and Monsoon
  9. India's Water Management Practices
  10. Factors affecting location of Industries
    1. Fertilizer Industry
    2. Agro-based Industries

UPSC Mains PYQ & Model Answers


General Studies II

Indian Polity

  1. Doctrine of Pleasure and Governor
  2. Uniform Civil Code –  link1 link2
  3. Role of Governor with respect to Centre and States
  4. Anti-defection Law
  5. Role of Speaker in Anti-defection Law
  6. Cooperatives and 97th Constitutional Amendment Act
  7. One Nation One Language
  8. Judicial Accountability
  9. Election Freebies
  10. Election Commission


  1. Jan Vishwas Act, 2022
  2. Digital India Bill
  3. Potential applications of AI in policy formulation
  4. Role of Civil Services in a Democracy
  5. Important Aspects of Governance
  6. E-Governance

Social Justice

International Relations

  1. India’s soft power projection
  2. India-France Relations – link1 link2
  3. Lessons from the Ukraine conflict for India
  4. NATO Plus and India – link1 link2 link3
  5. India Diaspora – link1 link2
  6. WTO Reforms – link1 link2
  7. BRICS – link1 link2
  8. India-US Relations
  9. India-Nepal Relations
  10. Other issues:
    1. Human Rights Crisis In Iran
    2. Various Ongoing Human Rights Crisis in the World

UPSC Mains PYQ & Model Answers


General Studies III

Indian Economy

  1. Key Highlights of Economic Survey 2022-23
  2. Reverse migration (shifting back to the agricultural sector)
  3. Toy industry of India
  4. Foreign Trade Policy (2023)
  5. Inclusive growth and issues arising from it
  6. Issue of greenwashing in green investments
  7. Internationalisation of the rupee
  8. Issue of Corporate Governance in India
  9. Semiconductor fabrication industry in India
  10. Challenges to India’s manufacturing sector
  11. Virtual Digital Assets and PMLA
  12. EU’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) and Indian industries
  13. Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc

Agriculture and Food Processing Industries

  1. Food processing and related industries in India
  2. Issue of GM/HT Crops in India – link1 link2
  3. Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country
  4. Storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints
  5. Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies
  6. e-technology in the aid of farmers

Science and Technology

  1. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR)
  2. Awareness in fields of Space
  3. Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology
  4. Awareness in fields of Biotechnology
  5. Indigenization of technology and developing new technology
  6. Role of Private Sector in India's Space Sector
  7. Chandrayaan-3 Mission
  8. Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  9. Supercomputers
  10. Science and technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life


  1. Forest (Conservation) Amendment Bill, 2023
  2. Climate Change – High Temperature
  3. Innovative methods to conserve biodiversity
  4. Project Tiger
  5. New set of e-waste rules
  6. Analyzing the Budget Allocation for Green Energy Transition
  7. Solar Energy in India
  8. World's Marine Plastic Pollution
  9. UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve (MAB) Programme
  10. Carbon Trading

Disaster Management

  1. Heat Waves
  2. Cold Waves
  3. Disaster Management in India
  4. National Disaster Management Authority
  5. NDMA Guidelines
  6. National Disaster Response Force
  7. Man-Made Disasters
  8. Disasters Management
  9. Case Study: Preparedness pays off
  10. Links between urban planning and disasters

Internal Security

  1. Linkages between development and spread of extremism
  2. Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security
  3. The role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges
  4. Basics of cybersecurity
  5. Security challenges and their management in border areas
  6. Linkages of organized crime with terrorism
  7. Money Laundering and its Prevention
  8. Ethnic violence in Manipur
  9. India’s efforts for Global Counterterrorism Approach
  10. Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC)

UPSC Mains PYQ & Model Answers

General Studies IV

  1. Human Values – Lessons from the lives of Great leaders, Administrators, Reformers
  2. Dimensions of Ethics
  3. Aptitude and foundational values of Civil Service
  4. Emotional Intelligence (Utility & application in administration & governance and others)
  5. Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India
  6. Contributions of Western Moral Thinkers & Philosophers
  7. Sources of ethical guidance- Laws, rules, regulations and conscience
  8. Challenges of Corruption – Understanding Corruption, Causes, Mechanisms to Fight, New Issues and Lokpal
  9. Utilization of Public Funds
  10. Quality of Service Delivery
  11. Citizen’s Charter
  12. Codes of Ethics and Codes of Conduct
  13. Information Sharing and Transparency in Governance and Right to Information
  14. The philosophical basis of governance and probity
  15. Probity in Governance: Concept of Public Service
  16. Corporate Governance
  17. Accountability and Ethical Governance; Strengthening Ethical and Moral Values in Governance
  18. International morality, Ethical Issues in International Relations and Funding
  19. Moral and Political Attitudes (Case Studies)
  20. Case Studies


Please Share with maximum friends to support the Initiative.

Download the Samajho App

Join 5 lakh+ students in downloading PDF Notes for 2000+ Topics relevant for UPSC Civil Services Exam. &nbsp Samajho Android App: Samajho iOS App: &nbsp Samajho IAS Youtube Channel (300K+ Subscribers):